Friendly URLs: try https://vensersjournal.com/613 or 104.3a
Most actions described in a card's rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within, but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. These "keywords" are game terms; sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings.
To activate an activated ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object's controller (or its owner, if it doesn't have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. A player may activate an ability if they have priority. See rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."
To attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to an object or player means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object or player. If something is attached to a permanent on the battlefield, it's customary to place it so that it's physically touching the permanent. An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification can't be attached to an object or player it couldn't enchant, equip, or fortify, respectively.
If an effect tries to attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to an object or player it can't be attached to, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification doesn't move. If an effect tries to attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to the object or player it's already attached to, the effect does nothing. If an effect tries to attach an object that isn't an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to another object or player, the effect does nothing and the first object doesn't move.
Attaching an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification on the battlefield to a different object or player causes the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to receive a new timestamp.
To "unattach" an Equipment from a creature means to move it away from that creature so the Equipment is on the battlefield but is not equipping anything. It should no longer be physically touching any creature. If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that was attached to an object or player ceases to be attached to it, that counts as "becoming unattached [from that object or player]"; this includes if that Aura, Equipment, or Fortification leaves the battlefield, the object leaves the zone it was in, or that player leaves the game.
To cast a spell is to take it from the zone it's in (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. A player may cast a spell if they have priority. See rule 601, "Casting Spells."
To cast a card is to cast it as a spell.
To counter a spell or ability means to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner's graveyard.
The player who cast a countered spell or activated a countered ability doesn't get a "refund" of any costs that were paid.
To create one or more tokens with certain characteristics, put the specified number of tokens with the specified characteristics onto the battlefield.
If a replacement effect applies to a token being created, that effect applies before considering any continuous effects that will modify the characteristics of that token. If a replacement effect applies to a token entering the battlefield, that effect applies after considering any continuous effects that will modify the characteristics of that token.
Previously, an effect that created tokens instructed a player to "put [those tokens] onto the battlefield." Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now "create" those tokens.
To destroy a permanent, move it from the battlefield to its owner's graveyard.
The only ways a permanent can be destroyed are as a result of an effect that uses the word "destroy" or as a result of the state-based actions that check for lethal damage (see rule 704.5g) or damage from a source with deathtouch (see rule 704.5h). If a permanent is put into its owner's graveyard for any other reason, it hasn't been "destroyed."
A regeneration effect replaces a destruction event. See rule 701.15, "Regenerate."
To discard a card, move it from its owner's hand to that player's graveyard.
By default, effects that cause a player to discard a card allow the affected player to choose which card to discard. Some effects, however, require a random discard or allow another player to choose which card is discarded.
If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner's graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card's characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 726, "Handling Illegal Actions").
Doubling a creature's power and/or toughness creates a continuous effect. This effect modifies that creature's power and/or toughness but doesn't set those characteristics to a specific value. See rule 613.4c.
To double a creature's power, that creature gets +X/+0, where X is that creature's power as the spell or ability that doubles its power resolves. Similarly, an effect that doubles a creature's toughness gives it +0/+X, where X is that creature's toughness. Doubling a creature's power and toughness gives it +X/+Y, where X is its power and Y is its toughness.
If a creature's power is less than 0 when it's doubled, doubling that creature's power instead means that the creature gets -X/-0, where X is the difference between 0 and its power. Similarly, if its toughness is less than 0 when doubled, it gets -0/-X. If one characteristic's value is negative but the other isn't when both are doubled, it gets -X/+Y or +X/-Y, as appropriate.
To double a player's life total, the player gains or loses an amount of life such that their new life total is twice its current value.
To double the number of a kind of counters on a player or permanent, give that player or permanent as many of those counters as that player or permanent already has.
To double the amount of a type of mana in a player's mana pool, that player adds an amount of mana of that type equal to the amount they already have.
A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if the entire exchange can't be completed, no part of the exchange occurs.
Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves, the spell does nothing to the other creature.
When control of two permanents is exchanged, if those permanents are controlled by different players, each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. If, on the other hand, those permanents are controlled by the same player, the exchange effect does nothing.
When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player's previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. A player who can't gain life can't be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can't lose life can't be given a lower life total this way (see rules 119.7–8).
Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, exiled cards and cards in a player's hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other "exchange" spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player, and they can exchange the cards even if one zone is empty.
If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object.
If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.
A spell or ability may instruct a player to exchange two numerical values. In such an exchange, each value becomes equal to the previous value of the other. If either of those values is a life total, the affected player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other value. Replacement effects may modify this gain or loss, and triggered abilities may trigger on it. A player who can't gain life can't be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can't lose life can't be given a lower life total this way (see rules 119.7–8). If either of those values is a power or toughness, a continuous effect is created setting that power or toughness to the other value (see rule 613.4b). This rule does not apply to spells and abilities that switch a creature's power and toughness.
To exile an object, move it to the exile zone from wherever it is. See rule 406, "Exile."
A spell or ability may instruct a creature to fight another creature or it may instruct two creatures to fight each other. Each of those creatures deals damage equal to its power to the other creature.
If one or both creatures instructed to fight are no longer on the battlefield or are no longer creatures, neither of them fights or deals damage. If one or both creatures are illegal targets for a resolving spell or ability that instructs them to fight, neither of them fights or deals damage.
If a creature fights itself, it deals damage to itself equal to twice its power.
The damage dealt when a creature fights isn't combat damage.
For a player to mill a number of cards, that player puts that many cards from the top of their library into their graveyard.
A player can't mill a number of cards greater than the number of cards in their library. If given the choice to do so, they can't choose to take that action. If instructed to do so, they mill as many as possible. Similarly, the player can't pay a cost that includes milling a number of cards greater than the number of cards in their library.
An effect that refers to a milled card can find that card in the zone it moved to from the library, as long as that zone is a public zone.
If an ability checks information about a single milled card but more than one card was milled, that ability refers to each of the milled cards. If that ability asks for any information about the milled card, such as a characteristic or mana value, it gets multiple answers. If these answers are used to determine the value of a variable, the sum of the answers is used. If that ability performs any actions on "the" card, it performs that action on each milled card. If that ability performs any actions on "a" card, the controller of the ability chooses which card is affected.
To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if they have priority, it's the main phase of their turn, the stack is empty, and they haven't played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 116), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."
To play a card means to play that card as a land or to cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate.
Some effects instruct a player to "play" with a certain aspect of the game changed, such as "Play with the top card of your library revealed." "Play" in this sense means to play the Magic game.
Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.
Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.
If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."
If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "Instead remove all damage marked on [permanent] and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."
Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can't be regenerated don't preclude such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they cause regeneration shields to not be applied.
To reveal a card, show that card to all players for a brief time. If an effect causes a card to be revealed, it remains revealed for as long as necessary to complete the parts of the effect that card is relevant to. If the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability includes revealing a card, the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until the time it leaves the stack. If revealing a card causes a triggered ability to trigger, the card remains revealed until that triggered ability leaves the stack. If that ability isn't put onto the stack the next time a player would receive priority, the card ceases to be revealed.
Revealing a card doesn't cause it to leave the zone it's in.
If cards in a player's library are shuffled or otherwise reordered, any revealed cards that are reordered stop being revealed and become new objects.
Some effects instruct a player to look at one or more cards. Looking at a card follows the same rules as revealing a card, except that the card is shown only to the specified player.
To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner's graveyard. A player can't sacrifice something that isn't a permanent, or something that's a permanent they don't control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn't destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can't affect this action.
To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, then put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order.
If a player is instructed to scry 0, no scry event occurs. Abilities that trigger whenever a player scries won't trigger.
If multiple players scry at once, each of those players looks at the top cards of their library at the same time. Those players decide in APNAP order (see rule 101.4) where to put those cards, then those cards move at the same time.
To search for a card in a zone, look at all cards in that zone (even if it's a hidden zone) and find a card that matches the given description.
If a player is searching a hidden zone for cards with a stated quality, such as a card with a certain card type or color, that player isn't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present in that zone.
Example: Splinter says "Exile target artifact. Search its controller's graveyard, hand, and library for all cards with the same name as that artifact and exile them. Then that player shuffles their library." A player casts Splinter targeting Howling Mine (an artifact). Howling Mine's controller has another Howling Mine in her graveyard and two more in her library. Splinter's controller must find the Howling Mine in the graveyard, but may choose to find zero, one, or two of the Howling Mines in the library.
If a player is instructed to search a hidden zone for cards that match an undefined quality, that player may still search that zone but can't find any cards.
Example: Lobotomy says "Target player reveals their hand, then you choose a card other than a basic land card from it. Search that player's graveyard, hand, and library for all cards with the same name as the chosen card and exile them. Then that player shuffles their library." If the target player has no cards in their hand when Lobotomy resolves, the player who cast Lobotomy searches the specified zones but doesn't exile any cards.
If a player is searching a hidden zone simply for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," that player must find that many cards (or as many as possible, if the zone doesn't contain enough cards).
If the effect that contains the search instruction doesn't also contain instructions to reveal the found card(s), then they're not revealed.
If searching a zone is replaced with searching a portion of that zone, any other instructions that refer to searching the zone still apply. Any abilities that trigger on a library being searched will trigger.
Example: Aven Mindcensor says, in part, "If an opponent would search a library, that player searches the top four cards of that library instead." Veteran Explorer says "When Veteran Explorer dies, each player may search their library for up to two basic land cards and put them onto the battlefield. Then each player who searched their library this way shuffles it." An opponent who searched the top four cards of their library because of Veteran Explorer's ability would shuffle the entire library.
If an effect offers a player a choice to search a zone and take additional actions with the cards found, that player may choose to search even if the additional actions are illegal or impossible.
An effect may instruct a player to search a library for one or more cards more than once before instructing a player to shuffle that library. This is the same as a single instruction for that player to search that library for all those cards. The player searches that library only once.
If multiple players search at once, each of those players looks at the appropriate cards at the same time, then those players decide in APNAP order (see rule 101.4) which card to find.
To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.
Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put the found card or cards in a certain position in that library. Even though the found card or cards never leave that library, they aren't included in the shuffle. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger. See also rule 401, "Library."
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if none of those objects are in the zone they're expected to be in or an effect causes all of those objects to be moved to another zone or remain in their current zone.
Example: Guile says, in part, "When Guile is put into a graveyard from anywhere, shuffle it into its owner's library." It's put into a graveyard and its ability triggers, then a player exiles it from that graveyard in response. When the ability resolves, the library is shuffled.
Example: Black Sun's Zenith says, in part, "Shuffle Black Sun's Zenith into its owner's library." Black Sun's Zenith is in a graveyard, has gained flashback (due to Recoup, perhaps), and is cast from that graveyard. Black Sun's Zenith will be exiled, and its owner's library will be shuffled.
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.
Example: Loaming Shaman says "When Loaming Shaman enters the battlefield, target player shuffles any number of target cards from their graveyard into their library." It enters the battlefield, its ability triggers, and no cards are targeted. When the ability resolves, the targeted player will still have to shuffle their library.
If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.
If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a library at the same time that an object would be put into a certain position in that library, the result is a shuffled library that's randomized except that the object is in the specified position.
Example: Darksteel Colossus and Gravebane Zombie are put into a player's graveyard from the battlefield at the same time. Darksteel Colossus says in part "If Darksteel Colossus would be put into a graveyard from anywhere, reveal Darksteel Colossus and shuffle it into its owner's library instead." Gravebane Zombie says "If Gravebane Zombie would die, put Gravebane Zombie on top of its owner's library instead." The player shuffles Darksteel Colossus into their library and puts Gravebane Zombie on top of that library.
Tap and Untap
To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.
To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.
To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, then put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order and the rest on top of that library in any order.
To clash, a player reveals the top card of their library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of their library.
"Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash."
Each clashing player reveals the top card of their library at the same time. Then those players decide in APNAP order (see rule 101.4) where to put those cards, then those cards move at the same time.
A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher mana value than all other cards revealed in that clash.
A player may planeswalk only during a Planechase game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, "Planechase."
To planeswalk is to put each face-up plane card and phenomenon card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.
A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon's triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.6f). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.
The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down or that leaves the game is the plane the player planeswalks away from. The same is true with respect to phenomena.
Set in Motion
Only a scheme card may be set in motion, and only during an Archenemy game. Only the archenemy may set a scheme card in motion. See rule 313, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."
To set a scheme in motion, move it off the top of your scheme deck if it's on top of your scheme deck and turn it face up if it isn't face up. That scheme is considered to have been set in motion even if neither of these actions was performed on it.
Schemes may only be set in motion one at a time. If a player is instructed to set multiple schemes in motion, that player sets a scheme in motion that many times.
Only a face-up ongoing scheme card may be abandoned, and only during an Archenemy game. See rule 313, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."
To abandon a scheme, turn it face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck.
To proliferate means to choose any number of permanents and/or players that have a counter, then give each one additional counter of each kind that permanent or player already has.
In a Two-Headed Giant game, poison counters are shared by the team. If more than one player on a team is chosen this way, only one of those players can be given an additional poison counter. The player who proliferates chooses which player that is. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."
To transform a permanent, turn it over so that its other face is up. Only permanents represented by transforming double-faced cards can transform. (See rule 712, "Double-Faced Cards.")
Although transforming a permanent uses the same physical action as turning a permanent face up or face down, they are different game actions. Abilities that trigger when a permanent is turned face down won't trigger when that permanent transforms, and so on.
If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent that isn't represented by a transforming double-faced card, nothing happens.
If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent, and the face that permanent would transform into is represented by an instant or sorcery card face, nothing happens.
Some triggered abilities trigger when an object "transforms into" an object with a specified characteristic. Such an ability triggers if the object transforms and has the specified characteristic immediately after it transforms.
If an activated or triggered ability of a permanent that isn't a delayed triggered ability of that permanent tries to transform it, the permanent transforms only if it hasn't transformed since the ability was put onto the stack. If a delayed triggered ability of a permanent tries to transform that permanent, the permanent transforms only if it hasn't transformed since that delayed triggered ability was created. In either case, if the permanent has already transformed, the instruction to transform is ignored.
Certain spells and abilities can detain a permanent. Until the next turn of the controller of that spell or ability, that permanent can't attack or block and its activated abilities can't be activated.
To populate means to choose a creature token you control and create a token that's a copy of that creature token.
If you control no creature tokens when instructed to populate, you won't create a token.
"Monstrosity N" means "If this permanent isn't monstrous, put N +1/+1 counters on it and it becomes monstrous."
Monstrous is a designation that has no rules meaning other than to act as a marker that the monstrosity action and other spells and abilities can identify. Only permanents can be or become monstrous. Once a permanent becomes monstrous, it stays monstrous until it leaves the battlefield. Monstrous is neither an ability nor part of the permanent's copiable values.
If a permanent's ability instructs a player to "monstrosity X," other abilities of that permanent may also refer to X. The value of X in those abilities is equal to the value of X as that permanent became monstrous.
Some spells and abilities instruct players to vote for one choice from a list of options to determine some aspect of the effect of that spell or ability. To vote, each player, starting with a specified player and proceeding in turn order, chooses one of those choices.
The listed choices may be objects, words with no rules meaning that are each connected to a different effect, or other variables relevant to the resolution of the spell or ability.
If the text of a spell or ability refers to "voting," it refers only to an actual vote, not to any spell or ability that involves the players making choices or decisions without using the word "vote."
If an effect gives a player multiple votes, those votes all happen at the same time the player would otherwise have voted.
"Bolster N" means "Choose a creature you control with the least toughness or tied for least toughness among creatures you control. Put N +1/+1 counters on that creature."
To manifest a card, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Put that card onto the battlefield face down. That permanent is a manifested permanent as long as it remains face down. The effect defining its characteristics works while the card is face down and ends when it's turned face up.
Any time you have priority, you may turn a manifested permanent you control face up. This is a special action that doesn't use the stack (see rule 116.2b). To do this, show all players that the card representing that permanent is a creature card and what that card's mana cost is, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. The effect defining its characteristics while it was face down ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. (If the card representing that permanent isn't a creature card or it doesn't have a mana cost, it can't be turned face up this way.)
If a card with morph is manifested, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.37e to turn a face-down permanent with morph face up or the procedure described above to turn a manifested permanent face up.
If an effect instructs a player to manifest multiple cards from their library, those cards are manifested one at a time.
If an effect instructs a player to manifest a card and a rule or effect prohibits the face-down object from entering the battlefield, that card isn't manifested. Its characteristics remain unmodified and it remains in its previous zone. If it was face up, it remains face up.
If a manifested permanent that's represented by an instant or sorcery card would turn face up, its controller reveals it and leaves it face down. Abilities that trigger whenever a permanent is turned face up won't trigger.
See rule 708, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," for more information.
"Support N" on a permanent means "Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N other target creatures." "Support N" on an instant or sorcery spell means "Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N target creatures."
"Investigate" means "Create a Clue token." See rule 111.10f.
Meld is a keyword action that appears in an ability on one card in a meld pair. (See rule 713, "Meld Cards.") To meld the two cards in a meld pair, put them onto the battlefield with their back faces up and combined. The resulting permanent is a single object represented by two cards.
Only two cards belonging to the same meld pair can be melded. Tokens, cards that aren't meld cards, or meld cards that don't form a meld pair can't be melded.
If an effect instructs a player to meld objects that can't be melded, they stay in their current zone.
Example: A player owns and controls Midnight Scavengers and a token that's a copy of Graf Rats. At the beginning of combat, both are exiled but can't be melded. Midnight Scavengers remains exiled and the exiled token ceases to exist.
Certain spells and abilities can goad a creature. Until the next turn of the controller of that spell or ability, that creature is goaded.
Goaded is a designation a permanent can have. A goaded creature attacks each combat if able and attacks a player other than the controller of the permanent, spell, or ability that caused it to be goaded if able. Goaded is neither an ability nor part of the permanent's copiable values.
A creature can be goaded by multiple players. Doing so creates additional combat requirements.
Once a player has goaded a creature, the same player goading it again has no effect. Doing so doesn't create additional combat requirements.
To exert a permanent, you choose to have it not untap during your next untap step.
A permanent can be exerted even if it's not tapped or has already been exerted in a turn. If you exert a permanent more than once before your next untap step, each effect causing it not to untap expires during the same untap step.
An object that isn't on the battlefield can't be exerted.
"You may exert [this creature] as it attacks" is an optional cost to attack (see rule 508.1g). Some objects with this static ability have a triggered ability that triggers "when you do" printed in the same paragraph. These abilities are linked. (See rule 607.2h.)
Certain abilities instruct a permanent to explore. To do so, that permanent's controller reveals the top card of their library. If a land card is revealed this way, that player puts that card into their hand. Otherwise, that player puts a +1/+1 counter on the exploring permanent and may put the revealed card into their graveyard.
A permanent "explores" after the process described in rule 701.40a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.
If a permanent changes zones before an effect causes it to explore, its last known information is used to determine which object explored and who controlled it.
Assemble is a keyword action in the Unstable set that puts Contraptions onto the battlefield. Outside of silver-bordered cards, only one card (Steamflogger Boss) refers to assembling a Contraption. Cards and mechanics from the Unstable set aren't included in these rules. See the Unstable FAQ for more information.
To "surveil N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, then put any number of them into your graveyard and the rest on top of your library in any order.
If an effect allows you to look at additional cards while you surveil, those cards are included among the cards you may put into your graveyard and on top of your library in any order.
"Adapt N" means "If this permanent has no +1/+1 counters on it, put N +1/+1 counters on it."
To amass N means "If you don't control an Army creature, create a 0/0 black Zombie Army creature token. Choose an Army creature you control. Put N +1/+1 counters on that creature."
The phrase "the [subtype] you amassed" refers to the creature you chose, whether or not it received counters.
"Learn" means "You may discard a card. If you do, draw a card. If you didn't discard a card, you may reveal a Lesson card you own from outside the game and put it into your hand."
Venture into the Dungeon
If a player is instructed to venture into the dungeon while they don't own a dungeon card in the command zone, they choose a dungeon card they own from outside the game and put it into the command zone. They put their venture marker on the topmost room. See rule 309, "Dungeons."
If a player is instructed to venture into the dungeon while their venture marker is in any room except the dungeon card's bottommost room, they choose an adjacent room, following the direction of an arrow pointing away from their current room. If there are multiple arrows pointing away from the room the player's venture marker is in, they choose one of them to follow. They move their venture marker to that adjacent room.
If a player is instructed to venture into the dungeon while their venture marker is in the bottommost room of a dungeon card, they remove that dungeon card from the game. Doing so causes the player to complete that dungeon (see rule 309.7). They then complete the procedure outlined in rule 701.46a again.