Rivals of Ixalan Dominaria
100.2.
To play, each player needs his or her own deck of traditional Magic cards, small items to represent any tokens and counters, and some way to clearly track life totals.
100.2.
To play, each player needs their own deck of traditional Magic cards, small items to represent any tokens and counters, and some way to clearly track life totals.
100.2a
In constructed play (a way of playing in which each player creates his or her own deck ahead of time), each deck must contain at least sixty cards. A constructed deck may contain any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards.
100.2a
In constructed play (a way of playing in which each player creates their own deck ahead of time), each deck must contain at least sixty cards. A constructed deck may contain any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards.
100.2b
In limited play (a way of playing in which each player gets the same quantity of unopened Magic product such as booster packs and creates his or her own deck using only this product and basic land cards), each deck must contain at least forty cards. A limited deck may contain as many duplicates of a card as are included with the product.
100.2b
In limited play (a way of playing in which each player gets the same quantity of unopened Magic product such as booster packs and creates their own deck using only this product and basic land cards), each deck must contain at least forty cards. A limited deck may contain as many duplicates of a card as are included with the product.
100.4.
Each player may also have a sideboard, which is a group of additional cards the player may use to modify his or her deck between games of a match.
100.4.
Each player may also have a sideboard, which is a group of additional cards the player may use to modify their deck between games of a match.
100.4b
In limited play involving individual players, all cards in a player’s card pool not included in his or her deck are in that player’s sideboard.
100.4b
In limited play involving individual players, all cards in a player’s card pool not included in their deck are in that player’s sideboard.
100.4d
In limited play involving other multiplayer team variants, each card in a team’s card pool but not in any player’s deck is assigned to the sideboard of one of those players. Each player has his or her own sideboard; cards may not be transferred between players.
100.4d
In limited play involving other multiplayer team variants, each card in a team’s card pool but not in any player’s deck is assigned to the sideboard of one of those players. Each player has their own sideboard; cards may not be transferred between players.
101.4a
If an effect has each player choose a card in a hidden zone, such as his or her hand or library, those cards may remain face down as they’re chosen. However, each player must clearly indicate which face-down card he or she is choosing.
101.4a
If an effect has each player choose a card in a hidden zone, such as their hand or library, those cards may remain face down as they’re chosen. However, each player must clearly indicate which face-down card they are choosing.
101.4b
A player knows the choices made by the previous players when he or she makes his or her choice, except as specified in 101.4a.
101.4b
A player knows the choices made by the previous players when making their choice, except as specified in 101.4a.
101.4c
If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren’t ordered.
101.4c
If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order specified. If no order is specified, they player chooses the order.
102.3.
In a multiplayer game between teams, a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team, and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team.
102.3.
In a multiplayer game between teams, a player’s teammates are the other players on their team, and the player’s opponents are all players not on their team.
103.1.
At the start of a game, each player shuffles his or her deck so that the cards are in a random order. Each player may then shuffle or cut his or her opponents’ decks. The players’ decks become their libraries.
103.1.
At the start of a game, each player shuffles their deck so that the cards are in a random order. Each player may then shuffle or cut their opponents’ decks. The players’ decks become their libraries.
103.1b
In a Commander game, each player puts his or her commander from his or her deck face up into the command zone before shuffling. See rule 903.6.
103.1b
In a Commander game, each player puts their commander from their deck face up into the command zone before shuffling. See rule 903.6.
103.1c
In a Conspiracy Draft game, each player puts any number of conspiracy cards from his or her sideboard into the command zone before shuffling. See rule 905.4.
103.1c
In a Conspiracy Draft game, each player puts any number of conspiracy cards from their sideboard into the command zone before shuffling. See rule 905.4.
103.3b
In a Vanguard game, each player’s starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of his or her vanguard card.
103.3b
In a Vanguard game, each player’s starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of their vanguard card.
103.4.
Each player draws a number of cards equal to his or her starting hand size, which is normally seven. (Some effects can modify a player’s starting hand size.) A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may take a mulligan. First, the starting player declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then each other player in turn order does the same. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player’s opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player’s hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.) After all players have kept an opening hand, each player in turn order whose hand contains fewer cards than that player’s starting hand size may look at the top card of his or her library. If a player does, that player may put that card on the bottom of his or her library.
103.4.
Each player draws a number of cards equal to their starting hand size, which is normally seven. (Some effects can modify a player’s starting hand size.) A player who is dissatisfied with their initial hand may take a mulligan. First, the starting player declares whether they will take a mulligan. Then each other player in turn order does the same. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles their hand back into their library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than they had before. If a player kept their hand of cards, those cards become the player’s opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player’s hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.) After all players have kept an opening hand, each player in turn order whose hand contains fewer cards than that player’s starting hand size may look at the top card of their library. If a player does, that player may put that card on the bottom of their library.
103.4a
In a Vanguard game, each player’s starting hand size is seven plus or minus the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.
103.4a
In a Vanguard game, each player’s starting hand size is seven plus or minus the hand modifier of their vanguard card.
103.4b
If an effect allows a player to perform an action “any time [that player] could mulligan,” the player may perform that action at a time he or she would declare whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. This need not be in the first round of mulligans. Other players may have already made their mulligan declarations by the time the player has the option to perform this action. If the player performs the action, he or she then declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan.
103.4b
If an effect allows a player to perform an action “any time [that player] could mulligan,” the player may perform that action at a time they would declare whether they will take a mulligan. This need not be in the first round of mulligans. Other players may have already made their mulligan declarations by the time the player has the option to perform this action. If the player performs the action, they then declare whether they will take a mulligan.
103.4c
In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of as many cards as he or she had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.
103.4c
In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, they draw a new hand of as many cards as had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.
103.4d
In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, first each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan, then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand.
103.4d
In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, first each player on the starting team declares whether that player will take a mulligan, then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after a teammate has decided to keep their opening hand.
103.5.
Some cards allow a player to take actions with them from his or her opening hand. Once the mulligan process (see rule 103.4) is complete, the starting player may take any such actions in any order. Then each other player in turn order may do the same.
103.5.
Some cards allow a player to take actions with them from their opening hand. Once the mulligan process (see rule 103.4) is complete, the starting player may take any such actions in any order. Then each other player in turn order may do the same.
103.5b
If a card allows a player to reveal it from his or her opening hand, the player taking this action does so. The card remains revealed until the first turn begins. Each card may be revealed this way only once.
103.5b
If a card allows a player to reveal it from their opening hand, the player taking this action does so. The card remains revealed until the first turn begins. Each card may be revealed this way only once.
103.6.
In a Planechase game, the starting player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. If it’s a plane card, that card is the starting plane. If it’s a phenomenon card, the player puts that card on the bottom of his or her planar deck and repeats this process until a plane card is turned face up. (See rule 901, “Planechase.”)
103.6.
In a Planechase game, the starting player moves the top card of their planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. If it’s a phenomenon card, the player puts that card on the bottom of their planar deck and repeats this process until a plane card is turned face up. The face-up plane card becomes the starting plane. (See rule 901, “Planechase.”)
103.7.
The starting player takes his or her first turn.
103.7.
The starting player takes their first turn.
103.7a
In a two-player game, the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 504, “Draw Step”) of his or her first turn.
103.7a
In a two-player game, the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 504, “Draw Step”) of their first turn.
103.7c
In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.
103.7c
In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of their first turn.
104.3a
A player can concede the game at any time. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. He or she loses the game.
104.3a
A player can concede the game at any time. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. That player loses the game.
104.3b
If a player’s life total is 0 or less, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)
104.3b
If a player’s life total is 0 or less, that player loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)
104.3c
If a player is required to draw more cards than are left in his or her library, he or she draws the remaining cards, and then loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)
104.3c
If a player is required to draw more cards than are left in their library, they draw the remaining cards and then lose the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)
104.3d
If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)
104.3d
If a player has ten or more poison counters, that player loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)
104.3f
If a player would both win and lose the game simultaneously, he or she loses the game.
104.3f
If a player would both win and lose the game simultaneously, that player loses the game.
104.4e
In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option, the effect of a spell or ability that states that the game is a draw causes the game to be a draw for that spell or ability’s controller and all players within his or her range of influence. Only those players leave the game; the game continues for all other players.
104.4e
In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option, the effect of a spell or ability that states that the game is a draw causes the game to be a draw for that spell or ability’s controller and all players within their range of influence. Only those players leave the game; the game continues for all other players.
104.5.
If a player loses the game, he or she leaves the game. If the game is a draw for a player, he or she leaves the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game; see rule 800.4.
104.5.
If a player loses the game, that player leaves the game. If the game is a draw for a player, that player leaves the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game; see rule 800.4.
104.6.
One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. All players still in the game when it restarts then immediately begin a new game. See rule 717, “Restarting the Game.”
104.6.
One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. All players still in the game when it restarts then immediately begin a new game. See rule 718, “Restarting the Game.”
105.4.
If a player is asked to choose a color, he or she must choose one of the five colors. “Multicolored” is not a color. Neither is “colorless.”
105.4.
If a player is asked to choose a color, they must choose one of the five colors. “Multicolored” is not a color. Neither is “colorless.”
106.3.
Mana is produced by the effects of mana abilities (see rule 605). It may also be produced by the effects of spells, as well as by the effects of abilities that aren’t mana abilities.
106.3.
Mana is produced by the effects of mana abilities (see rule 605). It may also be produced by the effects of spells, as well as by the effects of abilities that aren’t mana abilities. A spell or ability that produces mana instructs a player to add that mana.
106.4.
When an effect produces mana, that mana goes into a player’s mana pool. From there, it can be used to pay costs immediately, or it can stay in the player’s mana pool. Each player’s mana pool empties at the end of each step and phase.
106.4.
When an effect instructs a player to add mana, that mana goes into a player’s mana pool. From there, it can be used to pay costs immediately, or it can stay in the player’s mana pool as unspent mana. Each player’s mana pool empties at the end of each step and phase, and the player is said to lose this mana. Cards with abilities that produce mana or refer to unspent mana have received errata in the Oracle card reference to no longer explicitly refer to the mana pool.
106.4a
If a player passes priority (see rule 116) while there is mana in his or her mana pool, that player announces what mana is there. If any mana remains in a player’s mana pool after he or she spends mana to pay a cost, that player announces what mana is still there.
106.4a
If any mana remains in a player’s mana pool after mana is spent to pay a cost, that player announces what mana is still there.
106.4b
If a player passes priority (see rule 116) while there is mana in their mana pool, that player announces what mana is there.
106.11.
To “tap a permanent for mana” is to activate a mana ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its activation cost. See rule 605, “Mana Abilities.”
106.11.
To “tap [a permanent] for mana” is to activate a mana ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its activation cost. See rule 605, “Mana Abilities.”
106.11a
An ability that triggers whenever a permanent “is tapped for mana” or “is tapped for mana [of a specified type]” triggers whenever such a mana ability resolves and produces mana or the specified type of mana.
106.11a
An ability that triggers whenever a permanent “is tapped for mana” or is tapped for mana of a specified type triggers whenever such a mana ability resolves and produces mana or the specified type of mana.
106.11b
A replacement effect that applies if a permanent “is tapped for mana” or tapped for mana of a specific type and/or amount modifies the mana production event while such an ability is resolving and producing mana or the specified type and/or amount of mana.
106.12.
One card (Drain Power) puts all mana from one player’s mana pool into another player’s mana pool. (Note that these may be the same player.) This empties the former player’s mana pool and causes the mana emptied this way to be put into the latter player’s mana pool. Which permanents, spells, and/or abilities produced that mana are unchanged, as are any restrictions or additional effects associated with any of that mana.
106.12.
One card (Drain Power) causes one player to lose unspent mana and another to add “the mana lost this way.” (Note that these may be the same player.) This empties the former player’s mana pool and causes the mana emptied this way to be put into the latter player’s mana pool. Which permanents, spells, and/or abilities produced that mana are unchanged, as are any restrictions or additional effects associated with any of that mana.
107.1b
Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers and zero. You can’t choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it’s possible for a game value, such as a creature’s power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison needs to use a negative value, it does so. If a calculation that would determine the result of an effect yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player’s life total to a specific value, doubles a player’s life total, or sets a creature’s power or toughness to a specific value.
107.1b
Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers and zero. You can’t choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it’s possible for a game value, such as a creature’s power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison needs to use a negative value, it does so. If a calculation that would determine the result of an effect yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect doubles or sets to a specific value a player’s life total or a creature’s power and/or toughness.
107.3d
If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an {X} or an X in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost.
107.3d
If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an {X} or an X in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as they pay that cost.
107.4h
The snow mana symbol {S} represents one generic mana in a cost. This generic mana can be paid with one mana of any type produced by a snow permanent (see rule 205.4f). Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs. (There is no such thing as “snow mana”; “snow” is not a type of mana.)
107.4h
The snow mana symbol {S} represents one generic mana in a cost. This generic mana can be paid with one mana of any type produced by a snow permanent (see rule 205.4g). Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs. (There is no such thing as “snow mana”; “snow” is not a type of mana.)
107.5.
The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. See rule 302.6.
107.5.
The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control continuously since their most recent turn began. See rule 302.6.
107.6.
The untap symbol is {Q}. The untap symbol in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. A creature’s activated ability with the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. See rule 302.6.
107.6.
The untap symbol is {Q}. The untap symbol in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. A creature’s activated ability with the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control continuously since their most recent turn began. See rule 302.6.
107.14.
The energy symbol is {E}. It represents one energy counter. To pay {E}, a player removes one energy counter from himself or herself.
107.14.
The energy symbol is {E}. It represents one energy counter. To pay {E}, a player removes one energy counter from themselves.
107.15.
The text box of a Saga card contains chapter symbols, each of which is a keyword ability that represents a triggered ability. A chapter symbol includes a Roman numeral, indicated here as “rN”. The text printed in the text box striation to the right of a chapter symbol is the effect of the triggered ability it represents. See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”
107.15a
“{rN}—[Effect]” means “When one or more lore counters are put onto this Saga, if the number of lore counters on it was less than N and became at least N, [effect].”
107.15b
“{rN1}, {rN2}—[Effect]” is the same as “{rN1}—[Effect]” and “{rN2}—[Effect].”
108.3.
The owner of a card in the game is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck. If a card is brought into the game from outside the game rather than starting in a player’s deck, its owner is the player who brought it into the game. If a card starts the game in the command zone, its owner is the player who put it into the command zone to start the game. Legal ownership of a card in the game is irrelevant to the game rules except for the rules for ante. (See rule 407.)
108.3.
The owner of a card in the game is the player who started the game with it in their deck. If a card is brought into the game from outside the game rather than starting in a player’s deck, its owner is the player who brought it into the game. If a card starts the game in the command zone, its owner is the player who put it into the command zone to start the game. Legal ownership of a card in the game is irrelevant to the game rules except for the rules for ante. (See rule 407.)
108.3b
Some spells and abilities allow a player to take cards he or she owns from outside the game and bring them into the game. (See rule 400.10b.) If a card outside that game is involved in a Magic game, its owner is determined as described in rule 108.3. If a card outside that game is in the sideboard of a Magic game (see rule 100.4), its owner is considered to be the player who started the game with it in his or her sideboard. In all other cases, the owner of a card outside the game is its legal owner.
108.3b
Some spells and abilities allow a player to take cards they own from outside the game and bring them into the game. (See rule 400.10b.) If a card outside that game is involved in a Magic game, its owner is determined as described in rule 108.3. If a card outside that game is in the sideboard of a Magic game (see rule 100.4), its owner is considered to be the player who started the game with it in their sideboard. In all other cases, the owner of a card outside the game is its legal owner.
112.3b
Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as “[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation instructions (if any).]” A player may activate such an ability whenever he or she has priority. Doing so puts it on the stack, where it remains until it’s countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”
112.3b
Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as “[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation instructions (if any).]” A player may activate such an ability whenever they have priority. Doing so puts it on the stack, where it remains until it’s countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”
112.4.
Some activated abilities and some triggered abilities are mana abilities. Mana abilities follow special rules: They don’t use the stack, and, under certain circumstances, a player can activate mana abilities even if he or she doesn’t have priority. See rule 605, “Mana Abilities.”
112.4.
Some activated abilities and some triggered abilities are mana abilities. Mana abilities follow special rules: They don’t use the stack, and, under certain circumstances, a player can activate mana abilities even if they don’t have priority. See rule 605, “Mana Abilities.”
112.5.
Some activated abilities are loyalty abilities. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn. See rule 606, “Loyalty Abilities.”
112.5.
Some activated abilities are loyalty abilities. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent they control any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn. See rule 606, “Loyalty Abilities.”
112.6c
An object’s ability that allows a player to pay an alternative cost rather than its mana cost functions in any zone in which its mana cost can be paid (which, in general, means it functions on the stack). An object’s ability that otherwise modifies what that particular object costs to cast functions on the stack.
112.6c
An object’s ability that allows a player to pay an alternative cost rather than its mana cost or otherwise modifies what that particular object costs to cast functions on the stack.
112.6f
An object’s ability that states it can’t be countered or can’t be countered by spells and abilities functions on the stack.
112.6f
An object’s ability that states it can’t be countered functions on the stack.
112.9.
Activated and triggered abilities on the stack aren’t spells, and therefore can’t be countered by anything that counters only spells. Activated and triggered abilities on the stack can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities, as well as by the rules (for example, an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal). Static abilities don’t use the stack and thus can’t be countered at all.
112.9.
Activated and triggered abilities on the stack aren’t spells, and therefore can’t be countered by anything that counters only spells. Activated and triggered abilities on the stack can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities. Static abilities don’t use the stack and thus can’t be countered at all.
114.3.
The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on a spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word “target” in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). This rule applies both when choosing targets for a spell or ability and when changing targets or choosing new targets for a spell or ability (see rule 114.6).
114.3.
The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on a spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word “target” in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). This rule applies both when choosing targets for a spell or ability and when changing targets or choosing new targets for a spell or ability (see rule 114.7).
114.4.
Some spells and abilities that refer to damage require “any target,” “another target,” “two targets,” or similar rather than “target [something].” These targets may be creatures, players, or planeswalkers. Other game objects, such as noncreature artifacts or spells, can’t be chosen.
114.6a
If an effect allows a player to “change the target(s)” of a spell or ability, each target can be changed only to another legal target. If a target can’t be changed to another legal target, the original target is unchanged, even if the original target is itself illegal by then. If all the targets aren’t changed to other legal targets, none of them are changed.
114.6b
If an effect allows a player to “change a target” of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 114.6a is followed, except that only one of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).
114.6c
If an effect allows a player to “change any targets” of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 114.6a is followed, except that any number of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).
114.6d
If an effect allows a player to “choose new targets” for a spell or ability, the player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal and must not cause any unchanged targets to become illegal.
114.6e
When changing targets or choosing new targets for a spell or ability, only the final set of targets is evaluated to determine whether the change is legal.
114.7.
Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. An effect that allows a player to change the target(s) of a modal spell or ability, or to choose new targets for a modal spell or ability, doesn’t allow that player to change its mode. (See rule 700.2.)
114.7.
Some effects allow a player to change the target(s) of a spell or ability, and other effects allow a player to choose new targets for a spell or ability.
114.7a
If an effect allows a player to “change the target(s)” of a spell or ability, each target can be changed only to another legal target. If a target can’t be changed to another legal target, the original target is unchanged, even if the original target is itself illegal by then. If all the targets aren’t changed to other legal targets, none of them are changed.
114.7b
If an effect allows a player to “change a target” of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 114.7a is followed, except that only one of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).
114.7c
If an effect allows a player to “change any targets” of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 114.7a is followed, except that any number of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).
114.7d
If an effect allows a player to “choose new targets” for a spell or ability, the player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal and must not cause any unchanged targets to become illegal.
114.7e
When changing targets or choosing new targets for a spell or ability, only the final set of targets is evaluated to determine whether the change is legal.
114.8.
Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. An effect that allows a player to change the target(s) of a modal spell or ability, or to choose new targets for a modal spell or ability, doesn’t allow that player to change its mode. (See rule 700.2.)
114.8c
An object that looks for a “[spell or ability] that targets only [something]” checks the number of different objects or players that became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack (as modified by effects that changed those targets), not the number of those objects or players that are currently legal targets. If that number is one (even if the spell or ability targets that object or player multiple times), the current state of that spell or ability’s target is checked as described in rule 114.8b.
114.9c
An object that looks for a “[spell or ability] that targets only [something]” checks the number of different objects or players that became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack (as modified by effects that changed those targets), not the number of those objects or players that are currently legal targets. If that number is one (even if the spell or ability targets that object or player multiple times), the current state of that spell or ability’s target is checked as described in rule 114.9b.
115.1.
Special actions are actions a player may take when he or she has priority that don’t use the stack. These are not to be confused with turn-based actions and state-based actions, which the game generates automatically. (See rule 703, “Turn-Based Actions,” and rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
115.1.
Special actions are actions a player may take when they have priority that don’t use the stack. These are not to be confused with turn-based actions and state-based actions, which the game generates automatically. (See rule 703, “Turn-Based Actions,” and rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
115.2a
Playing a land is a special action. To play a land, a player puts that land onto the battlefield from the zone it was in (usually that player’s hand). By default, a player can take this action only once during each of his or her turns. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. See rule 305, “Lands.”
115.2a
Playing a land is a special action. To play a land, a player puts that land onto the battlefield from the zone it was in (usually that player’s hand). By default, a player can take this action only once during each of their turns. A player can take this action any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn. See rule 305, “Lands.”
115.2b
Turning a face-down creature face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority. See rule 707, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.”
115.2b
Turning a face-down creature face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time they have priority. See rule 707, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.”
115.2c
Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority, unless that effect specifies another timing restriction, for as long as the effect allows it.
115.2c
Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time they have priority, unless that effect specifies another timing restriction, for as long as the effect allows it.
115.2d
Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority.
115.2d
Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time they have priority.
115.2e
One card (Circling Vultures) has the ability “You may discard Circling Vultures any time you could cast an instant.” Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority.
115.2e
One card (Circling Vultures) has the ability “You may discard Circling Vultures any time you could cast an instant.” Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time they have priority.
115.2f
A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.61, “Suspend.”
115.2f
A player who has a card with suspend in their hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time they have priority, but only if they could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.61, “Suspend.”
115.2g
In a Planechase game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. Note that this number won’t be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. See rule 901, “Planechase.”
115.2g
In a Planechase game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times they have previously taken this action on that turn. Note that this number won’t be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. See rule 901, “Planechase.”
115.2h
In a Conspiracy Draft game, turning a face-down conspiracy card in the command zone face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority. See rule 905.4a.
115.2h
In a Conspiracy Draft game, turning a face-down conspiracy card in the command zone face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time they have priority. See rule 905.4a.
116.1a
A player may cast an instant spell any time he or she has priority. A player may cast a noninstant spell during his or her main phase any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty.
116.1a
A player may cast an instant spell any time they have priority. A player may cast a noninstant spell during their main phase any time they have priority and the stack is empty.
116.1b
A player may activate an activated ability any time he or she has priority.
116.1b
A player may activate an activated ability any time they have priority.
116.1c
A player may take some special actions any time he or she has priority. A player may take other special actions during his or her main phase any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty. See rule 115, “Special Actions.”
116.1c
A player may take some special actions any time they have priority. A player may take other special actions during their main phase any time they have priority and the stack is empty. See rule 115, “Special Actions.”
116.1d
A player may activate a mana ability whenever he or she has priority, whenever he or she is casting a spell or activating an ability that requires a mana payment, or whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment (even in the middle of casting or resolving a spell or activating or resolving an ability).
116.1d
A player may activate a mana ability whenever they have priority, whenever they have casting a spell or activating an ability that requires a mana payment, or whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment (even in the middle of casting or resolving a spell or activating or resolving an ability).
116.3c
If a player has priority when he or she casts a spell, activates an ability, or takes a special action, that player receives priority afterward.
116.3c
If a player has priority when they cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action, that player receives priority afterward.
116.3d
If a player has priority and chooses not to take any actions, that player passes. If any mana is in that player’s mana pool, he or she announces what mana is there. Then the next player in turn order receives priority.
116.3d
If a player has priority and chooses not to take any actions, that player passes. If any mana is in that player’s mana pool, they announce what mana is there. Then the next player in turn order receives priority.
117.3.
A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 202, “Mana Cost and Color,” and rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”
117.3.
A player can’t pay a cost without having the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 202, “Mana Cost and Color,” and rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”
117.5.
Some costs are represented by {0}, or are reduced to {0}. The action necessary for a player to pay such a cost is the player’s acknowledgment that he or she is paying it. Even though such a cost requires no resources, it’s not automatically paid.
117.5.
Some costs are represented by {0}, or are reduced to {0}. The action necessary for a player to pay such a cost is the player’s acknowledgment that they are paying it. Even though such a cost requires no resources, it’s not automatically paid.
117.8a
Any number of additional costs may be applied to a spell as it’s being cast or to an ability as it’s being activated. The controller of the spell or ability announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs as described in rule 601.2b.
117.8a
Any number of additional costs may be applied to a spell as it’s being cast or to an ability as it’s being activated. The controller of the spell or ability announces their intentions to pay any or all of those costs as described in rule 601.2b.
117.9a
Only one alternative cost can be applied to any one spell as it’s being cast. The controller of the spell announces his or her intentions to pay that cost as described in rule 601.2b.
117.9a
Only one alternative cost can be applied to any one spell as it’s being cast. The controller of the spell announces their intentions to pay that cost as described in rule 601.2b.
117.12b
Some effects offer a player a choice to search a zone and take additional actions with the cards found in that zone, followed by an “If [a player] does” clause. This clause checks whether the player chose to search, not whether the player took any of the additional actions.
118.1b
In a Vanguard game, each player’s starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of his or her vanguard card. See rule 902, “Vanguard.”
118.1b
In a Vanguard game, each player’s starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of their vanguard card. See rule 902, “Vanguard.”
118.4.
If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if his or her life total is greater than or equal to the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total; in other words, the player loses that much life. (Players can always pay 0 life.)
118.4.
If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if their life total is greater than or equal to the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from their life total; in other words, the player loses that much life. (Players can always pay 0 life.)
118.4a
If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team’s life total is greater than or equal to the total amount of life both team members are paying for that cost or effect. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team’s life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)
118.4a
If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if their team’s life total is greater than or equal to the total amount of life both team members are paying for that cost or effect. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from their team’s life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)
119.6.
Damage marked on a creature remains until the cleanup step, even if that permanent stops being a creature. If the total damage marked on a creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a permanent is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.13, “Regenerate”) and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).
119.6.
Damage marked on a creature remains until the cleanup step, even if that permanent stops being a creature. If the total damage marked on a creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a permanent is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.14, “Regenerate”) and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).
119.7.
The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that’s waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that’s waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or a face-up object in the command zone. A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 609.7, “Sources of Damage.”
119.7.
The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, they may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that’s waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that’s waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or a face-up object in the command zone. A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 609.7, “Sources of Damage.”
120.1.
A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. This is done as a turn-based action during each player’s draw step. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.
120.1.
A player draws a card by putting the top card of their library into their hand. This is done as a turn-based action during each player’s draw step. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.
120.2c
If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards, the active player performs all of his or her draws first, then each other player in turn order does the same.
120.2c
If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards, the active player performs all of their draws first, then each other player in turn order does the same.
120.2d
If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a game that’s using the shared team turns option (such as a Two-Headed Giant game), first each player on the active team, in whatever order that team likes, performs his or her draws, then each player on each nonactive team in turn order does the same.
120.2d
If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a game that’s using the shared team turns option (such as a Two-Headed Giant game), first each player on the active team, in whatever order that team likes, performs their draws, then each player on each nonactive team in turn order does the same.
120.3a
The same principles apply if the player who’s making the choice is not the player who would draw the card. If the latter player has no cards in his or her library, the choice can be taken. If an effect says that the latter player can’t draw a card, the choice can’t be taken.
120.3a
The same principles apply if the player who’s making the choice is not the player who would draw the card. If the latter player has no cards in their library, the choice can be taken. If an effect says that the latter player can’t draw a card, the choice can’t be taken.
121.1c
If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game as a state-based action. See rule 704. A player is “poisoned” if he or she has one or more poison counters. (See rule 810 for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games.)
121.1c
If a player has ten or more poison counters, that player loses the game as a state-based action. See rule 704. A player is “poisoned” if they have one or more poison counters. (See rule 810 for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games.)
202.1a
The mana cost of an object represents what a player must spend from his or her mana pool to cast that card. Unless an object’s mana cost includes Phyrexian mana symbols (see rule 107.4f), paying that mana cost requires matching the type of any colored or colorless mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.
202.1a
The mana cost of an object represents what a player must spend from their mana pool to cast that card. Unless an object’s mana cost includes Phyrexian mana symbols (see rule 107.4f), paying that mana cost requires matching the type of any colored or colorless mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.
205.3e
If an effect instructs a player to choose a subtype, that player must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype he or she chooses must be for the appropriate card type. For example, the player can’t choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type.
205.3e
If an effect instructs a player to choose a subtype, that player must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype must be for the appropriate card type. For example, the player can’t choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type.
205.3h
Enchantments have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called enchantment types.
No enchantment types were removed in this update
205.3j
Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types.
No planeswalker types were removed in this update
205.3j
Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types.
The new planeswalker types this set are: Jaya
(Click the rule number to see the full list of planeswalker types.)
205.4e
Any instant or sorcery spell with the supertype “legendary” is subject to a casting restriction. A player can’t cast a legendary instant or sorcery spell unless that player controls a legendary creature or a legendary planeswalker.
205.4g
Any scheme card with the supertype “ongoing” is exempt from the state-based action for schemes (see rule 704.5v).
205.4h
Any scheme card with the supertype “ongoing” is exempt from the state-based action for schemes (see rule 704.5w).
206.3.
Previously, a spell or ability that affected cards from a particular set checked for that set’s expansion symbol. These cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say they affect cards “with a name originally printed” in a particular set. See rule 700.6 for details.
206.3.
Previously, a spell or ability that affected cards from a particular set checked for that set’s expansion symbol. These cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say they affect cards “with a name originally printed” in a particular set. See rule 700.7 for details.
209.2.
An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost is a loyalty ability. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent’s loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, “Loyalty Abilities.”
209.2.
An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost is a loyalty ability. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent they control any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn, but only if none of that permanent’s loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, “Loyalty Abilities.”
301.1.
A player who has priority may cast an artifact card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Casting an artifact as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
301.1.
A player who has priority may cast an artifact card from their hand during a main phase of their turn when the stack is empty. Casting an artifact as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
301.2.
When an artifact spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under his or her control.
301.2.
When an artifact spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under their control.
302.1.
A player who has priority may cast a creature card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Casting a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
302.1.
A player who has priority may cast a creature card from their hand during a main phase of their turn when the stack is empty. Casting a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
302.2.
When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under his or her control.
302.2.
When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under their control.
302.6.
A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. A creature can’t attack unless it has been under its controller’s control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. This rule is informally called the “summoning sickness” rule.
302.6.
A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control continuously since their most recent turn began. A creature can’t attack unless it has been under its controller’s control continuously since their most recent turn began. This rule is informally called the “summoning sickness” rule.
302.7.
Damage dealt to a creature by a source with neither wither nor infect is marked on that creature (see rule 119.3). If the total damage marked on that creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.13, “Regenerate”) and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).
302.7.
Damage dealt to a creature by a source with neither wither nor infect is marked on that creature (see rule 119.3). If the total damage marked on that creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.14, “Regenerate”) and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).
303.1.
A player who has priority may cast an enchantment card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Casting an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
303.1.
A player who has priority may cast an enchantment card from their hand during a main phase of their turn when the stack is empty. Casting an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
303.2.
When an enchantment spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under his or her control.
303.2.
When an enchantment spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under their control.
303.5.
Some enchantments have the subtype “Saga.” See rule 714 for more information about Saga cards.
304.1.
A player who has priority may cast an instant card from his or her hand. Casting an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
304.1.
A player who has priority may cast an instant card from their hand. Casting an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
304.5.
If text states that a player may do something “any time he or she could cast an instant,” it means only that the player must have priority. The player doesn’t need to have an instant he or she could actually cast. Effects that would preclude that player from casting a spell or casting an instant don’t affect the player’s capability to perform that action (unless the action is actually casting a spell or casting an instant).
304.5.
If text states that a player may do something “any time they could cast an instant,” it means only that the player must have priority. The player doesn’t need to have an instant they could cast. Effects that would preclude that player from casting a spell or casting an instant don’t affect the player’s capability to perform that action (unless the action is actually casting a spell or casting an instant).
305.1.
A player who has priority may play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a land is a special action; it doesn’t use the stack (see rule 115). Rather, the player simply puts the land onto the battlefield. Since the land doesn’t go on the stack, it is never a spell, and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities.
305.1.
A player who has priority may play a land card from their hand during a main phase of their turn when the stack is empty. Playing a land is a special action; it doesn’t use the stack (see rule 115). Rather, the player simply puts the land onto the battlefield. Since the land doesn’t go on the stack, it is never a spell, and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities.
305.2.
A player can normally play one land during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number.
305.2.
A player can normally play one land during their turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number.
305.2a
To determine whether a player can play a land, compare the number of lands the player can play this turn with the number of lands he or she has already played this turn (including lands played as special actions and lands played during the resolution of spells and abilities). If the number of lands the player can play is greater, the play is legal.
305.2a
To determine whether a player can play a land, compare the number of lands the player can play this turn with the number of lands they have already played this turn (including lands played as special actions and lands played during the resolution of spells and abilities). If the number of lands the player can play is greater, the play is legal.
305.2b
A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if the number of lands the player can play this turn is equal to or less than the number of lands he or she has already played this turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.
305.2b
A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if the number of lands the player can play this turn is equal to or less than the number of lands they have already played this turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.
305.3.
A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if it isn’t his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.
305.3.
A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if it isn’t their turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.
305.6.
The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words “basic land type,” it’s referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has the intrinsic ability “{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool,” even if the text box doesn’t actually contain that text or the object has no text box. For Plains, [mana symbol] is {W}; for Islands, {U}; for Swamps, {B}; for Mountains, {R}; and for Forests, {G}. See rule 107.4a. See also rule 605, “Mana Abilities.”
305.6.
The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words “basic land type,” it’s referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has the intrinsic ability “{T}: Add [mana symbol],” even if the text box doesn’t actually contain that text or the object has no text box. For Plains, [mana symbol] is {W}; for Islands, {U}; for Swamps, {B}; for Mountains, {R}; and for Forests, {G}. See rule 107.4a. See also rule 605, “Mana Abilities.”
306.1.
A player who has priority may cast a planeswalker card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Casting a planeswalker as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
306.1.
A player who has priority may cast a planeswalker card from their hand during a main phase of their turn when the stack is empty. Casting a planeswalker as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
306.2.
When a planeswalker spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under his or her control.
306.2.
When a planeswalker spell resolves, its controller puts it onto the battlefield under their control.
306.5d
Each planeswalker has a number of loyalty abilities, which are activated abilities with loyalty symbols in their costs. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent’s loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, “Loyalty Abilities.”
306.5d
Each planeswalker has a number of loyalty abilities, which are activated abilities with loyalty symbols in their costs. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent they control any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn, but only if none of that permanent’s loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, “Loyalty Abilities.”
306.7.
If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent, that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead. This is a redirection effect (see rule 614.9) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 616). The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied.
306.7.
Previously, planeswalkers were subject to a redirection effect that allowed a player to have noncombat damage that would be dealt to an opponent be dealt to a planeswalker under that opponent’s control instead. This rule has been removed and certain cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to deal damage directly to planeswalkers.
307.1.
A player who has priority may cast a sorcery card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Casting a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
307.1.
A player who has priority may cast a sorcery card from their hand during a main phase of their turn when the stack is empty. Casting a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”)
307.5.
If a spell, ability, or effect states that a player can do something only “any time he or she could cast a sorcery,” it means only that the player must have priority, it must be during the main phase of his or her turn, and the stack must be empty. The player doesn’t need to have a sorcery he or she could actually cast. Effects that would preclude that player from casting a spell or casting a sorcery don’t affect the player’s capability to perform that action (unless the action is actually casting a spell or casting a sorcery).
307.5.
If a spell, ability, or effect states that a player can do something only “any time they could cast a sorcery,” it means only that the player must have priority, it must be during the main phase of their turn, and the stack must be empty. The player doesn’t need to have a sorcery they could cast. Effects that would preclude that player from casting a spell or casting a sorcery don’t affect the player’s capability to perform that action (unless the action is actually casting a spell or casting a sorcery).
307.5a
Similarly, if an effect checks to see if a spell was cast “any time a sorcery couldn’t have been cast,” it’s checking only whether the spell’s controller cast it without having priority, during a phase other than his or her main phase, or while another object was on the stack.
307.5a
Similarly, if an effect checks to see if a spell was cast “any time a sorcery couldn’t have been cast,” it’s checking only whether the spell’s controller cast it without having priority, during a phase other than their main phase, or while another object was on the stack.
309.5.
The controller of a face-up plane card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.
309.5.
The controller of a face-up plane card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until they leave the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.
310.4.
The controller of a face-up phenomenon card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.
310.4.
The controller of a face-up phenomenon card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until they leave the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.
310.7.
If a phenomenon card is face up in the command zone, and it isn’t the source of a triggered ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, the planar controller planeswalks the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action; see rule 704. See also rule 701.22, “Planeswalk.”)
310.7.
If a phenomenon card is face up in the command zone, and it isn’t the source of a triggered ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, the planar controller planeswalks the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action; see rule 704. See also rule 701.23, “Planeswalk.”)
311.6.
Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting hand size and maximum hand size of the vanguard card’s owner (normally seven). The resulting number is both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.
311.6.
Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting hand size and maximum hand size of the vanguard card’s owner (normally seven). The resulting number is both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and their maximum hand size.
313.2.
At the start of a game, before decks are shuffled, each player may put any number of conspiracy cards from his or her sideboard into the command zone. Conspiracy cards with hidden agenda are put into the command zone face down. (See rule 702.105, “Hidden Agenda.”)
313.2.
At the start of a game, before decks are shuffled, each player may put any number of conspiracy cards from their sideboard into the command zone. Conspiracy cards with hidden agenda are put into the command zone face down. (See rule 702.105, “Hidden Agenda.”)
400.1.
A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. There are normally seven zones: library, hand, battlefield, graveyard, stack, exile, and command. Some older cards also use the ante zone. Each player has his or her own library, hand, and graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players.
400.1.
A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. There are normally seven zones: library, hand, battlefield, graveyard, stack, exile, and command. Some older cards also use the ante zone. Each player has their own library, hand, and graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players.
401.1.
When a game begins, each player’s deck becomes his or her library.
401.1.
When a game begins, each player’s deck becomes their library.
401.4.
If an effect puts two or more cards in a specific position in a library at the same time, the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order. That library’s owner doesn’t reveal the order in which the cards go into his or her library.
401.4.
If an effect puts two or more cards in a specific position in a library at the same time, the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order. That library’s owner doesn’t reveal the order in which the cards go into the library.
401.5.
Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed, or say that a player may look at the top card of his or her library. If the top card of the player’s library changes while a spell is being cast, the new top card won’t be revealed and can’t be looked at until the spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2i). The same is true with relation to an ability being activated.
401.5.
Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of their library revealed, or say that a player may look at the top card of their library. If the top card of the player’s library changes while a spell is being cast, the new top card won’t be revealed and can’t be looked at until the spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2i). The same is true with relation to an ability being activated.
401.6.
If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed, and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again, it becomes a new object.
401.6.
If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of their library revealed, and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again, it becomes a new object.
402.2.
Each player has a maximum hand size, which is normally seven cards. A player may have any number of cards in his or her hand, but as part of his or her cleanup step, the player must discard excess cards down to the maximum hand size.
402.2.
Each player has a maximum hand size, which is normally seven cards. A player may have any number of cards in their hand, but as part of their cleanup step, the player must discard excess cards down to the maximum hand size.
402.3.
A player may arrange his or her hand in any convenient fashion and look at it as much as he or she wishes. A player can’t look at the cards in another player’s hand but may count those cards at any time.
402.3.
A player may arrange their hand in any convenient fashion and look at it at any time. A player can’t look at the cards in another player’s hand but may count those cards at any time.
403.1.
Most of the area between the players represents the battlefield. The battlefield starts out empty. Permanents a player controls are normally kept in front of him or her on the battlefield, though there are some cases (such as an Aura attached to another player’s permanent) when a permanent one player controls is kept closer to a different player.
403.1.
Most of the area between the players represents the battlefield. The battlefield starts out empty. Permanents a player controls are normally kept in front of them on the battlefield, though there are some cases (such as an Aura attached to another player’s permanent) when a permanent one player controls is kept closer to a different player.
404.1.
A player’s graveyard is his or her discard pile. Any object that’s countered, discarded, destroyed, or sacrificed is put on top of its owner’s graveyard, as is any instant or sorcery spell that’s finished resolving. Each player’s graveyard starts out empty.
404.1.
A player’s graveyard is their discard pile. Any object that’s countered, discarded, destroyed, or sacrificed is put on top of its owner’s graveyard, as is any instant or sorcery spell that’s finished resolving. Each player’s graveyard starts out empty.
404.2.
Each graveyard is kept in a single face-up pile. A player can examine the cards in any graveyard at any time but normally can’t change their order. Additional rules applying to sanctioned tournaments may allow a player to change the order of cards in his or her graveyard.
404.2.
Each graveyard is kept in a single face-up pile. A player can examine the cards in any graveyard at any time but normally can’t change their order. Additional rules applying to sanctioned tournaments may allow a player to change the order of cards in their graveyard.
406.3.
Exiled cards are, by default, kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. Cards “exiled face down” can’t be examined by any player except when instructions allow it. However, once a player is allowed to look at a card exiled face down, that player may continue to look at that card as long as it remains exiled, even if the instruction allowing the player to do so no longer applies. A card exiled face down has no characteristics, but the spell or ability that exiled it may allow it to be played from exile. Unless that card is being cast face down (see rule 707.4), the card is turned face up just before the player announces that he or she is playing the card (see rule 601.2).
406.3.
Exiled cards are, by default, kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. Cards “exiled face down” can’t be examined by any player except when instructions allow it. However, once a player is allowed to look at a card exiled face down, that player may continue to look at that card as long as it remains exiled, even if the instruction allowing the player to do so no longer applies. A card exiled face down has no characteristics, but the spell or ability that exiled it may allow it to be played from exile. Unless that card is being cast face down (see rule 707.4), the card is turned face up just before the player announces that they are playing the card (see rule 601.2).
406.4.
Face-down cards in exile should be kept in separate piles based on when they were exiled and how they were exiled. If a player is instructed to choose an exiled card, the player may choose a specific face-down card only if the player is allowed to look at that card. Otherwise, he or she may choose a pile of face-down exiled cards, and then a card is chosen at random from within that pile. If choosing such a card is part of casting a spell or activating an ability, the chosen card isn’t revealed until after that cost is fully paid. (See rule 601.2i.)
406.4.
Face-down cards in exile should be kept in separate piles based on when they were exiled and how they were exiled. If a player is instructed to choose an exiled card, the player may choose a specific face-down card only if the player is allowed to look at that card. Otherwise, they may choose a pile of face-down exiled cards, and then a card is chosen at random from within that pile. If choosing such a card is part of casting a spell or activating an ability, the chosen card isn’t revealed until after that cost is fully paid. (See rule 601.2i.)
407.2.
When playing for ante, each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone after determining which player goes first but before players draw any cards. Cards in the ante zone may be examined by any player at any time. At the end of the game, the winner becomes the owner of all the cards in the ante zone.
407.2.
When playing for ante, each player puts one random card from their deck into the ante zone after determining which player goes first but before players draw any cards. Cards in the ante zone may be examined by any player at any time. At the end of the game, the winner becomes the owner of all the cards in the ante zone.
502.2.
Second, the active player determines which permanents he or she controls will untap. Then he or she untaps them all simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. Normally, all of a player’s permanents untap, but effects can keep one or more of a player’s permanents from untapping.
502.2.
Second, the active player determines which permanents they control will untap. Then they untap them all simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. Normally, all of a player’s permanents untap, but effects can keep one or more of a player’s permanents from untapping.
505.3.
First, but only if the players are playing an Archenemy game (see rule 904), the active player is the archenemy, and it’s the active player’s precombat main phase, the active player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion (see rule 701.23). This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
505.3.
First, but only if the players are playing an Archenemy game (see rule 904), the active player is the archenemy, and it’s the active player’s precombat main phase, the active player sets the top card of their scheme deck in motion (see rule 701.24). This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
505.4.
Second, if the active player controls one or more Saga enchantments and it’s the active player’s precombat main phase, the active player puts a lore counter on each Saga they control. (See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”) This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
505.5.
Third, the active player gets priority. (See rule 116, “Timing and Priority.”)
505.4b
During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if he or she hasn’t played a land this turn (unless an effect states the player may play additional lands). This action doesn’t use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can’t be countered, and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. (See rule 305, “Lands.”)
505.5b
During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from their hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if they haven’t played a land this turn (unless an effect states the player may play additional lands). This action doesn’t use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can’t be countered, and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. (See rule 305, “Lands.”)
506.2.
During the combat phase, the active player is the attacking player; creatures that player controls may attack. During the combat phase of a two-player game, the nonactive player is the defending player; that player and planeswalkers he or she controls may be attacked.
506.2.
During the combat phase, the active player is the attacking player; creatures that player controls may attack. During the combat phase of a two-player game, the nonactive player is the defending player; that player and planeswalkers they control may be attacked.
506.2a
During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player’s opponents automatically become defending players during the combat phase, the attacking player chooses one of his or her opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, “Attack Multiple Players Option,” rule 803, “Attack Left and Attack Right Options,” and rule 809, “Emperor Variant.”
506.2a
During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player’s opponents automatically become defending players during the combat phase, the attacking player chooses one of their opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, “Attack Multiple Players Option,” rule 803, “Attack Left and Attack Right Options,” and rule 809, “Emperor Variant.”
506.2b
In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, the nonactive team is the defending team. See rule 810, “Two-Headed Giant Variant.”
506.2b
In multiplayer games using the shared team turns option, the active team is the attacking team and the nonactive team is the defending team. See rule 805, “Shared Team Turns Option.”
506.4.
A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if it phases out, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.13) or stops being a creature. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked.
506.4.
A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if it phases out, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.14) or stops being a creature. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked.
507.1.
First, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player’s opponents don’t all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. That player becomes the defending player. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. (See rule 506.2.)
507.1.
First, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player’s opponents don’t all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of their opponents. That player becomes the defending player. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. (See rule 506.2.)
508.1.
First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
508.1.
First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
508.1a
The active player chooses which creatures that he or she controls, if any, will attack. The chosen creatures must be untapped, and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the turn began.
508.1a
The active player chooses which creatures that they control, if any, will attack. The chosen creatures must be untapped, and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the turn began.
508.1c
The active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it’s affected by any restrictions (effects that say a creature can’t attack, or that it can’t attack unless some condition is met). If any restrictions are being disobeyed, the declaration of attackers is illegal.
508.1c
The active player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any restrictions (effects that say a creature can’t attack, or that it can’t attack unless some condition is met). If any restrictions are being disobeyed, the declaration of attackers is illegal.
508.1d
The active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it’s affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature attacks if able, or that it attacks if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of attackers is illegal. If a creature can’t attack unless a player pays a cost, that player is not required to pay that cost, even if attacking with that creature would increase the number of requirements being obeyed. If a requirement that says a creature attacks if able during a certain turn refers to a turn with multiple combat phases, the creature attacks if able during each declare attackers step in that turn.
508.1d
The active player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature attacks if able, or that it attacks if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of attackers is illegal. If a creature can’t attack unless a player pays a cost, that player is not required to pay that cost, even if attacking with that creature would increase the number of requirements being obeyed. If a requirement that says a creature attacks if able during a certain turn refers to a turn with multiple combat phases, the creature attacks if able during each declare attackers step in that turn.
508.1g
If there are any optional costs to attack with the chosen creatures (expressed as costs a player may pay “as” a creature attacks), the active player chooses which, if any, he or she will pay.
508.1g
If there are any optional costs to attack with the chosen creatures (expressed as costs a player may pay “as” a creature attacks), the active player chooses which, if any, they will pay.
508.1j
Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool, he or she pays all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.
508.1j
Once the player has enough mana in their mana pool, they pay all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.
508.7f
In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team or planeswalker the creature is attacking is reselected rather than the player or planeswalker. A team reselected this way must be an opposing team of the attacking creature’s controller.
509.1.
First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
509.1.
First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
509.1a
The defending player chooses which creatures that he or she controls, if any, will block. The chosen creatures must be untapped. For each of the chosen creatures, the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that’s attacking him, her, or a planeswalker he or she controls.
509.1a
The defending player chooses which creatures they control, if any, will block. The chosen creatures must be untapped. For each of the chosen creatures, the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that’s attacking that player or a planeswalker they control.
509.1b
The defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it’s affected by any restrictions (effects that say a creature can’t block, or that it can’t block unless some condition is met). If any restrictions are being disobeyed, the declaration of blockers is illegal.
509.1b
The defending player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any restrictions (effects that say a creature can’t block, or that it can’t block unless some condition is met). If any restrictions are being disobeyed, the declaration of blockers is illegal.
509.1c
The defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it’s affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must block, or that it must block if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of blockers is illegal. If a creature can’t block unless a player pays a cost, that player is not required to pay that cost, even if blocking with that creature would increase the number of requirements being obeyed. If a requirement that says a creature blocks if able during a certain turn refers to a turn with multiple combat phases, the creature blocks if able during each declare blockers step in that turn.
509.1c
The defending player checks each creature they control to see whether it’s affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must block, or that it must block if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of blockers is illegal. If a creature can’t block unless a player pays a cost, that player is not required to pay that cost, even if blocking with that creature would increase the number of requirements being obeyed. If a requirement that says a creature blocks if able during a certain turn refers to a turn with multiple combat phases, the creature blocks if able during each declare blockers step in that turn.
509.1f
Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool, he or she pays all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.
509.1f
Once the player has enough mana in their mana pool, they pay all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.
510.1e
Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls, the total damage assignment (not solely the damage assignment of any individual attacking or blocking creature) is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn’t, the combat damage assignment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
510.1e
Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature they control, the total damage assignment (not solely the damage assignment of any individual attacking or blocking creature) is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn’t, the combat damage assignment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
514.1.
First, if the active player’s hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven), he or she discards enough cards to reduce his or her hand size to that number. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
514.1.
First, if the active player’s hand contains more cards than their maximum hand size (normally seven), they discard enough cards to reduce their hand size to that number. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
601.2.
To cast a spell is to take it from where it is (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Casting a spell includes proposal of the spell (rules 601.2a–d) and determination and payment of costs (rules 601.2f–h). To cast a spell, a player follows the steps listed below, in order. A player must be legally allowed to cast the spell to begin this process (see rule 601.3), ignoring any effect that would prohibit that spell from being cast based on information determined during that spell’s proposal. (Such effects are considered during the check detailed in rule 601.2e.) If, at any point during the casting of a spell, a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the casting of the spell is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the casting of that spell was proposed (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
601.2.
To cast a spell is to take it from where it is (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Casting a spell includes proposal of the spell (rules 601.2a–d) and determination and payment of costs (rules 601.2f–h). To cast a spell, a player follows the steps listed below, in order. A player must be legally allowed to cast the spell to begin this process (see rule 601.3), ignoring any effect that would prohibit that spell from being cast based on information determined during that spell’s proposal. (Such effects are considered during the check detailed in rule 601.2e.) If, at any point during the casting of a spell, a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the casting of the spell is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the casting of that spell was proposed (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
601.2b
If the spell is modal, the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.46), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it’s being cast such as buyback or kicker costs (see rules 117.8 and 117.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2f). A player can’t apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it’s being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If the value of that variable is defined in the text of the spell by a choice that player would make later in the announcement or resolution of the spell, that player makes that choice at this time instead of that later time. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes Phyrexian mana symbols, the player announces whether he or she intends to pay 2 life or the corresponding colored mana cost for each of those symbols. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player’s options when making these choices.
601.2b
If the spell is modal, the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.46), they reveal those cards in their hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it’s being cast such as buyback or kicker costs (see rules 117.8 and 117.9), the player announces their intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2f). A player can’t apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it’s being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If the value of that variable is defined in the text of the spell by a choice that player would make later in the announcement or resolution of the spell, that player makes that choice at this time instead of that later time. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost they intend to pay. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes Phyrexian mana symbols, the player announces whether they intend to pay 2 life or the corresponding colored mana cost for each of those symbols. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player’s options when making these choices.
601.2c
The player announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each target the spell requires. A spell may require some targets only if an alternative or additional cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost), or a particular mode, was chosen for it; otherwise, the spell is cast as though it did not require those targets. If the spell has a variable number of targets, the player announces how many targets he or she will choose before he or she announces those targets. In some cases, the number of targets will be defined by the spell’s text. Once the number of targets the spell has is determined, that number doesn’t change, even if the information used to determine the number of targets does. The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on the spell. However, if the spell uses the word “target” in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). If any effects say that an object or player must be chosen as a target, the player chooses targets so that he or she obeys the maximum possible number of such effects without violating any rules or effects that say that an object or player can’t be chosen as a target. The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell. (Any abilities that trigger when those players, objects, and/or zones become the target of a spell trigger at this point; they’ll wait to be put on the stack until the spell has finished being cast.)
601.2c
The player announces their choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each target the spell requires. A spell may require some targets only if an alternative or additional cost (such as a kicker cost) or a particular mode was chosen for it; otherwise, the spell is cast as though it did not require those targets. Similarly, a spell may require alternative targets only if an alternative or additional cost was chosen for it. If the spell has a variable number of targets, the player announces how many targets they will choose before they announce those targets. In some cases, the number of targets will be defined by the spell’s text. Once the number of targets the spell has is determined, that number doesn’t change, even if the information used to determine the number of targets does. The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on the spell. However, if the spell uses the word “target” in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). If any effects say that an object or player must be chosen as a target, the player chooses targets so that they obey the maximum possible number of such effects without violating any rules or effects that say that an object or player can’t be chosen as a target. The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell. (Any abilities that trigger when those players, objects, and/or zones become the target of a spell trigger at this point; they’ll wait to be put on the stack until the spell has finished being cast.)
601.2e
The game checks to see if the proposed spell can legally be cast. If the proposed spell is illegal, the game returns to the moment before the casting of that spell was proposed (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
601.2e
The game checks to see if the proposed spell can legally be cast. If the proposed spell is illegal, the game returns to the moment before the casting of that spell was proposed (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
601.2i
Once the steps described in 601.2a–h are completed, effects that modify the characteristics of the spell as it’s cast are applied, then the spell becomes cast. Any abilities that trigger when a spell is cast or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell’s controller had priority before casting it, he or she gets priority.
601.2i
Once the steps described in 601.2a–h are completed, effects that modify the characteristics of the spell as it’s cast are applied, then the spell becomes cast. Any abilities that trigger when a spell is cast or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell’s controller had priority before casting it, they get priority.
601.3.
A player can’t begin to cast a spell unless a rule or effect allows that player to cast it. If that player is no longer allowed to cast that spell after completing its proposal, the casting of the spell is illegal and the game returns to the moment before the casting of that spell was proposed (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
601.3.
A player can’t begin to cast a spell unless a rule or effect allows that player to cast it. If that player is no longer allowed to cast that spell after completing its proposal, the casting of the spell is illegal and the game returns to the moment before the casting of that spell was proposed (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
601.3b
If an effect allows a player to cast a spell with certain characteristics as though it had flash, that player may consider any choices to be made during that spell’s proposal that may cause it to have those characteristics. If any such choices could cause it to match these characteristics, that player may begin to cast that spell.
601.3b
If an effect allows a player to cast a spell with certain characteristics as though it had flash, that player may consider any choices to be made during that spell’s proposal that may cause it to have those characteristics. If any such choices could cause it to match these characteristics, that player may begin to cast that spell as though it had flash.
601.3c
If a spell would have flash only if certain conditions are met, its controller may begin to cast that spell if those conditions are met.
601.3c
If a spell would have flash only if certain conditions are met, its controller may begin to cast that spell as though it had flash if those conditions are met.
602.2.
To activate an ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object’s controller (or its owner, if it doesn’t have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Activating an ability follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the activation of an ability, a player is unable to comply with any of those steps, the activation is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that ability started to be activated (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”). Announcements and payments can’t be altered after they’ve been made.
602.2.
To activate an ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object’s controller (or its owner, if it doesn’t have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Activating an ability follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the activation of an ability, a player is unable to comply with any of those steps, the activation is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that ability started to be activated (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”). Announcements and payments can’t be altered after they’ve been made.
602.2a
The player announces that he or she is activating the ability. If an activated ability is being activated from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. That ability is created on the stack as an object that’s not a card. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who activated the ability. The ability remains on the stack until it’s countered, it resolves, or an effect moves it elsewhere.
602.2a
The player announces that they are activating the ability. If an activated ability is being activated from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. That ability is created on the stack as an object that’s not a card. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who activated the ability. The ability remains on the stack until it’s countered, it resolves, or an effect moves it elsewhere.
602.5a
A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 702.10).
602.5a
A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can’t be activated unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of their most recent turn. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 702.10).
602.5d
Activated abilities that read “Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery” mean the player must follow the timing rules for casting a sorcery spell, though the ability isn’t actually a sorcery. The player doesn’t actually need to have a sorcery card that he or she could cast.
602.5d
Activated abilities that read “Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery” mean the player must follow the timing rules for casting a sorcery spell, though the ability isn’t actually a sorcery. The player doesn’t actually need to have a sorcery card that they could cast.
602.5e
Activated abilities that read “Activate this ability only any time you could cast an instant” mean the player must follow the timing rules for casting an instant spell, though the ability isn’t actually an instant. The player doesn’t actually need to have an instant card that he or she could cast.
602.5e
Activated abilities that read “Activate this ability only any time you could cast an instant” mean the player must follow the timing rules for casting an instant spell, though the ability isn’t actually an instant. The player doesn’t actually need to have an instant card that they could cast.
603.3b
If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority, each player, in APNAP order, puts triggered abilities he or she controls on the stack in any order he or she chooses. (See rule 101.4.) Then the game once again checks for and resolves state-based actions until none are performed, then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. This process repeats until no new state-based actions are performed and no abilities trigger. Then the appropriate player gets priority.
603.3b
If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority, each player, in APNAP order, puts triggered abilities they control on the stack in any order they choose. (See rule 101.4.) Then the game once again checks for and resolves state-based actions until none are performed, then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. This process repeats until no new state-based actions are performed and no abilities trigger. Then the appropriate player gets priority.
603.3c
If a triggered ability is modal, its controller announces the mode choice when he or she puts the ability on the stack. If one of the modes would be illegal (due to an inability to choose legal targets, for example), that mode can’t be chosen. If no mode can be chosen, the ability is removed from the stack. (See rule 700.2.)
603.3c
If a triggered ability is modal, its controller announces the mode choice when putting the ability on the stack. If one of the modes would be illegal (due to an inability to choose legal targets, for example), that mode can’t be chosen. If no mode can be chosen, the ability is removed from the stack. (See rule 700.2.)
605.3a
A player may activate an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority, whenever he or she is casting a spell or activating an ability that requires a mana payment, or whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment, even if it’s in the middle of casting or resolving a spell or activating or resolving an ability.
605.3a
A player may activate an activated mana ability whenever they have priority, whenever they are casting a spell or activating an ability that requires a mana payment, or whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment, even if it’s in the middle of casting or resolving a spell or activating or resolving an ability.
606.3.
A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn.
606.3.
A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent they control any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn.
608.2b
If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that’s no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word “target,” are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally. Illegal targets, if any, won’t be affected by parts of a resolving spell’s effect for which they’re illegal. Other parts of the effect for which those targets are not illegal may still affect them. If the spell or ability creates any continuous effects that affect game rules (see rule 613.10), those effects don’t apply to illegal targets. If part of the effect requires information about an illegal target, it fails to determine any such information. Any part of the effect that requires that information won’t happen.
608.2b
If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that’s no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. If all its targets, for every instance of the word “target,” are now illegal, the spell or ability doesn’t resolve. It’s removed from the stack and, if it’s a spell, put into its owner’s graveyard. Otherwise, the spell or ability will resolve normally. Illegal targets, if any, won’t be affected by parts of a resolving spell’s effect for which they’re illegal. Other parts of the effect for which those targets are not illegal may still affect them. If the spell or ability creates any continuous effects that affect game rules (see rule 613.10), those effects don’t apply to illegal targets. If part of the effect requires information about an illegal target, it fails to determine any such information. Any part of the effect that requires that information won’t happen.
608.2f
If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana, he or she may activate mana abilities before taking that action. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to cast a spell during resolution, he or she does so by following the steps in rules 601.2a–i, except no player receives priority after it’s cast. That spell becomes the topmost object on the stack, and the currently resolving spell or ability continues to resolve, which may include casting other spells this way. No other spells can normally be cast and no other abilities can normally be activated during resolution.
608.2f
If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana, they may activate mana abilities before taking that action. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to cast a spell during resolution, they do so by following the steps in rules 601.2a–i, except no player receives priority after it’s cast. That spell becomes the topmost object on the stack, and the currently resolving spell or ability continues to resolve, which may include casting other spells this way. No other spells can normally be cast and no other abilities can normally be activated during resolution.
609.7a
If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a replacement or prevention effect that’s waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that’s waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or a face-up object in the command zone. A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage dealt by that permanent, regardless of whether it’s combat damage or damage dealt as the result of a spell or ability. If the player chooses a permanent spell, the effect will apply to any damage dealt by that spell and any damage dealt by the permanent that spell becomes when it resolves.
609.7a
If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, they may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a replacement or prevention effect that’s waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that’s waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or a face-up object in the command zone. A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage dealt by that permanent, regardless of whether it’s combat damage or damage dealt as the result of a spell or ability. If the player chooses a permanent spell, the effect will apply to any damage dealt by that spell and any damage dealt by the permanent that spell becomes when it resolves.
614.8.
Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word “instead” doesn’t appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.” Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 701.13.
614.8.
Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word “instead” doesn’t appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.” Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 701.14.
614.10a
Anything scheduled for a skipped step, phase, or turn won’t happen. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence, that player must skip the next two; one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence, while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped.
614.10a
Anything scheduled for a skipped step, phase, or turn won’t happen. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. If two effects each cause a player to skip their next occurrence, that player must skip the next two; one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence, while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped.
615.7.
Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, “Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn.” These work like shields. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the “shielded” creature or player is prevented. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by two or more applicable sources at the same time, the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents. Once the shield has been reduced to 0, any remaining damage is dealt normally. Such effects count only the amount of damage; the number of events or sources dealing it doesn’t matter.
615.7.
Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, “Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to any target this turn.” These work like shields. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the “shielded” permanent or player is prevented. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. If damage would be dealt to the shielded permanent or player by two or more applicable sources at the same time, the player or the controller of the permanent chooses which damage the shield prevents. Once the shield has been reduced to 0, any remaining damage is dealt normally. Such effects count only the amount of damage; the number of events or sources dealing it doesn’t matter.
700.2c
If a spell or ability targets one or more targets only if a particular mode is chosen for it, its controller will need to choose those targets only if he or she chose that mode. Otherwise, the spell or ability is treated as though it did not have those targets. (See rule 601.2c.)
700.2c
If a spell or ability targets one or more targets only if a particular mode is chosen for it, its controller will need to choose those targets only if they chose that mode. Otherwise, the spell or ability is treated as though it did not have those targets. (See rule 601.2c.)
700.6.
The term historic refers to an object that has the legendary supertype, the artifact card type, or the Saga subtype.
701.2a
To activate an activated ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object’s controller (or its owner, if it doesn’t have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. A player may activate an ability if he or she has priority. See rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”
701.2a
To activate an activated ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object’s controller (or its owner, if it doesn’t have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. A player may activate an ability if they have priority. See rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”
701.4a
To cast a spell is to take it from the zone it’s in (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. A player may cast a spell if he or she has priority. See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”
701.4a
To cast a spell is to take it from the zone it’s in (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. A player may cast a spell if they have priority. See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”
701.7c
A regeneration effect replaces a destruction event. See rule 701.13, “Regenerate.”
701.7c
A regeneration effect replaces a destruction event. See rule 701.14, “Regenerate.”
701.8c
If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner’s graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card’s characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 720, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
701.8c
If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner’s graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card’s characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 721, “Handling Illegal Actions”).
701.9a
A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if the entire exchange can’t be completed, no part of the exchange occurs.
701.9a
Doubling a creature’s power and/or toughness creates a continuous effect. This effect modifies that creature’s power and/or toughness but doesn’t set those characteristics to a specific value. See rule 613.3c.
701.9b
When control of two permanents is exchanged, if those permanents are controlled by different players, each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. If, on the other hand, those permanents are controlled by the same player, the exchange effect does nothing.
701.9b
To double a creature’s power, that creature gets +X/+0, where X is that creature’s power as the spell or ability that doubles its power resolves. Similarly, an effect that doubles a creature’s toughness gives it +0/+X, where X is that creature’s toughness. Doubling a creature’s power and toughness gives it +X/+Y, where X is its power and Y is its toughness.
701.9c
When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player’s previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. A player who can’t gain life can’t be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can’t lose life can’t be given a lower life total this way (see rules 118.7–8).
701.9c
If a creature’s power is less than 0 when it’s doubled, doubling that creature’s power instead means that the creature gets -X/-0, where X is the difference between 0 and its power. Similarly, if its toughness is less than 0 when doubled, it gets -0/-X. If one characteristic’s value is negative but the other isn’t when both are doubled, it gets -X/+Y or +X/-Y, as appropriate.
701.9d
Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, exiled cards and cards in a player’s hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other “exchange” spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player.
701.9d
To double a player’s life total, the player gains or loses an amount of life such that their new life total is twice its current value.
701.9e
If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object.
701.9e
To double the number of a kind of counters on a player or permanent, give that player or permanent as many of those counters as that player or permanent already has.
701.9f
If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.
701.9f
To double the amount of a type of mana in a player’s mana pool, that player adds an amount of mana of that type equal to the amount they already have.
701.9g
A spell or ability may instruct a player to exchange two numerical values. In such an exchange, each value becomes equal to the previous value of the other. If either of those values is a life total, the affected player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other value. Replacement effects may modify this gain or loss, and triggered abilities may trigger on it. A player who can’t gain life can’t be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can’t lose life can’t be given a lower life total this way (see rules 118.7–8). If either of those values is a power or toughness, a continuous effect is created setting that power or toughness to the other value (see rule 613.3b). This rule does not apply to spells and abilities that switch a creature’s power and toughness.
701.10a
To exile an object, move it to the exile zone from wherever it is. See rule 406, “Exile.”
701.10a
A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if the entire exchange can’t be completed, no part of the exchange occurs.
701.10b
When control of two permanents is exchanged, if those permanents are controlled by different players, each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. If, on the other hand, those permanents are controlled by the same player, the exchange effect does nothing.
701.10c
When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player’s previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. A player who can’t gain life can’t be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can’t lose life can’t be given a lower life total this way (see rules 118.7–8).
701.10d
Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, exiled cards and cards in a player’s hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other “exchange” spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player, and they can exchange the cards even if one zone is empty.
701.10e
If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object.
701.10f
If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.
701.10g
A spell or ability may instruct a player to exchange two numerical values. In such an exchange, each value becomes equal to the previous value of the other. If either of those values is a life total, the affected player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other value. Replacement effects may modify this gain or loss, and triggered abilities may trigger on it. A player who can’t gain life can’t be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can’t lose life can’t be given a lower life total this way (see rules 118.7–8). If either of those values is a power or toughness, a continuous effect is created setting that power or toughness to the other value (see rule 613.3b). This rule does not apply to spells and abilities that switch a creature’s power and toughness.
701.11a
To exile an object, move it to the exile zone from wherever it is. See rule 406, “Exile.”
701.11c
If a creature fights itself, it deals damage equal to its power to itself twice.
701.12c
If a creature fights itself, it deals damage to itself equal to twice its power.
701.13a
If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.”
701.13a
To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it’s in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if they have priority, it’s the main phase of their turn, the stack is empty, and they haven’t played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 115), so it doesn’t use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn’t the same as playing a land. See rule 305, “Lands.”
701.13b
To play a card means to play that card as a land or to cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate.
701.13c
Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can’t be regenerated don’t preclude such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they cause regeneration shields to not be applied.
701.13c
Some effects instruct a player to “play” with a certain aspect of the game changed, such as “Play with the top card of your library revealed.” “Play” in this sense means to play the Magic game.
701.12e
Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as “playing” that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to “activating” that ability.
701.13d
Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as “playing” that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to “casting” that spell or that card.
701.13e
Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as “playing” that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to “activating” that ability.
701.13b
If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, “Regenerate [permanent]” means “Instead remove all damage marked on [permanent] and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.”
701.14a
If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.”
701.14b
If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, “Regenerate [permanent]” means “Instead remove all damage marked on [permanent] and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.”
701.14c
Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can’t be regenerated don’t preclude such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they cause regeneration shields to not be applied.
701.15a
To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner’s graveyard. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent, or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect this action.
701.16a
To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner’s graveyard. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent, or something that’s a permanent they don’t control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect this action.
701.17c
If a player is instructed to search a hidden zone for cards that match an undefined quality, that player may still search that zone but can’t find any cards.
701.17d
If a player is searching a hidden zone simply for a quantity of cards, such as “a card” or “three cards,” that player must find that many cards (or as many as possible, if the zone doesn’t contain enough cards).
701.17e
If the effect that contains the search instruction doesn’t also contain instructions to reveal the found card(s), then they’re not revealed.
701.17f
If searching a zone is replaced with searching a portion of that zone, any other instructions that refer to searching the zone still apply. Any abilities that trigger on a library being searched will trigger.
701.18a
To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.
701.18a
To search for a card in a zone, look at all cards in that zone (even if it’s a hidden zone) and find a card that matches the given description.
701.18b
Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put the found card or cards in a certain position in that library. Even though the found card or cards never leave that library, they aren’t included in the shuffle. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger. See also rule 401, “Library.”
701.18b
If a player is searching a hidden zone for cards with a stated quality, such as a card with a certain card type or color, that player isn’t required to find some or all of those cards even if they’re present in that zone.
701.18c
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if none of those objects are in the zone they’re expected to be in or an effect causes all of those objects to be moved to another zone or remain in their current zone.
701.18c
If a player is instructed to search a hidden zone for cards that match an undefined quality, that player may still search that zone but can’t find any cards.
701.18d
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.
701.18d
If a player is searching a hidden zone simply for a quantity of cards, such as “a card” or “three cards,” that player must find that many cards (or as many as possible, if the zone doesn’t contain enough cards).
701.18e
If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.
701.18e
If the effect that contains the search instruction doesn’t also contain instructions to reveal the found card(s), then they’re not revealed.
701.18f
If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.
701.18f
If searching a zone is replaced with searching a portion of that zone, any other instructions that refer to searching the zone still apply. Any abilities that trigger on a library being searched will trigger.
701.18g
If an effect offers a player a choice to search a zone and take additional actions with the cards found, that player may choose to search even if the additional actions are illegal or impossible.
701.19a
To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.
701.19a
To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.
701.19b
To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.
701.19b
Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put the found card or cards in a certain position in that library. Even though the found card or cards never leave that library, they aren’t included in the shuffle. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger. See also rule 401, “Library.”
701.19c
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if none of those objects are in the zone they’re expected to be in or an effect causes all of those objects to be moved to another zone or remain in their current zone.
701.19d
If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.
701.19e
If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.
701.19f
If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.
701.20a
To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.
701.20b
To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.
701.21a
To clash, a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.
701.22a
To clash, a player reveals the top card of their library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of their library.
701.22c
A player may planeswalk as the result of the “planeswalking ability” (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon’s triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.5w). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.
701.23c
A player may planeswalk as the result of the “planeswalking ability” (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon’s triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.5x). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.
701.26d
If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent, and the face that permanent would transform into is represented by an instant or sorcery card face, nothing happens.
701.26e
Some triggered abilities trigger when an object “transforms into” an object with a specified characteristic. Such an ability triggers if the object transforms and has the specified characteristic immediately after it transforms.
701.26f
If an activated or triggered ability of a permanent that isn’t a delayed triggered ability of that permanent tries to transform it, the permanent transforms only if it hasn’t transformed since the ability was put onto the stack. If a delayed triggered ability of a permanent tries to transform that permanent, the permanent transforms only if it hasn’t transformed since that delayed triggered ability was created. In either case, if the permanent has already transformed, the instruction to transform is ignored.
701.27a
Certain spells and abilities can detain a permanent. Until the next turn of the controller of that spell or ability, that permanent can’t attack or block and its activated abilities can’t be activated.
701.27a
To transform a permanent, turn it over so that its other face is up. Only permanents represented by double-faced cards can transform. (See rule 711, “Double-Faced Cards.”)
701.27b
Although transforming a permanent uses the same physical action as turning a permanent face up or face down, they are different game actions. Abilities that trigger when a permanent is turned face down won’t trigger when that permanent transforms, and so on.
701.27c
If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent that isn’t represented by a double-faced card, nothing happens.
701.27d
If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent, and the face that permanent would transform into is represented by an instant or sorcery card face, nothing happens.
701.27e
Some triggered abilities trigger when an object “transforms into” an object with a specified characteristic. Such an ability triggers if the object transforms and has the specified characteristic immediately after it transforms.
701.27f
If an activated or triggered ability of a permanent that isn’t a delayed triggered ability of that permanent tries to transform it, the permanent transforms only if it hasn’t transformed since the ability was put onto the stack. If a delayed triggered ability of a permanent tries to transform that permanent, the permanent transforms only if it hasn’t transformed since that delayed triggered ability was created. In either case, if the permanent has already transformed, the instruction to transform is ignored.
701.28a
Certain spells and abilities can detain a permanent. Until the next turn of the controller of that spell or ability, that permanent can’t attack or block and its activated abilities can’t be activated.
701.32b
Any time you have priority, you may turn a manifested permanent you control face up. This is a special action that doesn’t use the stack (see rule 115.2b). To do this, show all players that the card representing that permanent is a creature card and what that card’s mana cost is, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. The effect defining its characteristics while it was face down ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. (If the card representing that permanent isn’t a creature card or it doesn’t have a mana cost, it can’t be turned face up this way.)
701.32c
If a card with morph is manifested, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.36e to turn a face-down permanent with morph face up or the procedure described above to turn a manifested permanent face up.
701.32d
If an effect instructs a player to manifest multiple cards from his or her library, those cards are manifested one at a time.
701.32e
If a manifested permanent that’s represented by an instant or sorcery card would turn face up, its controller reveals it and leaves it face down. Abilities that trigger whenever a permanent is turned face up won’t trigger.
701.32f
See rule 707, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents,” for more information.
701.33a
“Support N” on a permanent means “Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N other target creatures.” “Support N” on an instant or sorcery spell means “Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N target creatures.”
701.33a
To manifest a card, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Put that card onto the battlefield face down. That permanent is a manifested permanent as long as it remains face down. The effect defining its characteristics works while the card is face down and ends when it’s turned face up.
701.33b
Any time you have priority, you may turn a manifested permanent you control face up. This is a special action that doesn’t use the stack (see rule 115.2b). To do this, show all players that the card representing that permanent is a creature card and what that card’s mana cost is, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. The effect defining its characteristics while it was face down ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. (If the card representing that permanent isn’t a creature card or it doesn’t have a mana cost, it can’t be turned face up this way.)
701.33c
If a card with morph is manifested, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.36e to turn a face-down permanent with morph face up or the procedure described above to turn a manifested permanent face up.
701.33d
If an effect instructs a player to manifest multiple cards from their library, those cards are manifested one at a time.
701.33e
If a manifested permanent that’s represented by an instant or sorcery card would turn face up, its controller reveals it and leaves it face down. Abilities that trigger whenever a permanent is turned face up won’t trigger.
701.33f
See rule 707, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents,” for more information.
701.34a
“Support N” on a permanent means “Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N other target creatures.” “Support N” on an instant or sorcery spell means “Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N target creatures.”
701.38a
Certain abilities instruct a permanent to explore. To do so, that permanent’s controller reveals the top card of his or her library. If a land card is revealed this way, that player puts that card into his or her hand. Otherwise, that player puts a +1/+1 counter on the exploring permanent and may put the revealed card into his or her graveyard.
701.39a
Certain abilities instruct a permanent to explore. To do so, that permanent’s controller reveals the top card of their library. If a land card is revealed this way, that player puts that card into their hand. Otherwise, that player puts a +1/+1 counter on the exploring permanent and may put the revealed card into their graveyard.
701.38b
A permanent “explores” after the process described in rule 701.38a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.
701.39b
A permanent “explores” after the process described in rule 701.39a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.
702.6c
“Equip [quality] creature” is a variant of the equip ability. “Equip [quality] [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this permanent to target [quality] creature you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.” This ability doesn’t restrict what the Equipment may be attached to.
702.6d
An “equip [quality] creature” ability is an equip ability, and an “equip [quality] creature” cost is an equip cost. Any effect that modifies how or whether a player may activate an equip ability of an object affects “equip [quality] creature” abilities of that object. Any effect that increases or reduces an equip cost will increase or reduce a “equip [quality] creature” cost.
702.6c
If a permanent has multiple instances of equip, any of its equip abilities may be activated.
702.6e
If a permanent has multiple equip abilities, any of its equip abilities may be activated.
702.10b
If a creature has haste, it can attack even if it hasn’t been controlled by its controller continuously since his or her most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)
702.10b
If a creature has haste, it can attack even if it hasn’t been controlled by its controller continuously since their most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)
702.10c
If a creature has haste, its controller can activate its activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if that creature hasn’t been controlled by that player continuously since his or her most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)
702.10c
If a creature has haste, its controller can activate its activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if that creature hasn’t been controlled by that player continuously since their most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)
702.11d
“Hexproof from [quality]” is a variant of the hexproof ability. “Hexproof from [quality]” on a permanent means “This permanent can’t be the target of [quality] spells your opponents control or abilities your opponents control from [quality] sources.” A “hexproof from [quality]” ability is a hexproof ability.
702.11e
Any effect that causes an object to lose hexproof will cause an object to lose all “hexproof from [quality]” abilities. Any effect that allows a player to choose a creature with hexproof as a target as though it didn’t have hexproof will allow a player to choose a creature with a “hexproof from [quality]” ability. Any effect that looks for a card with hexproof will find a card with a “hexproof from [quality]” ability.
702.11d
Multiple instances of hexproof on the same permanent or player are redundant.
702.11f
Multiple instances of the same hexproof ability on the same permanent or player are redundant.
702.21c
As a player declares attackers, he or she may declare that one or more attacking creatures with banding and up to one attacking creature without banding (even if it has “bands with other”) are all in a “band.” He or she may also declare that one or more attacking [quality] creatures with “bands with other [quality]” and any number of other attacking [quality] creatures are all in a band. A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants, but each creature may be a member of only one of them. (Defending players can’t declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 702.21j.)
702.21c
As a player declares attackers, they may declare that one or more attacking creatures with banding and up to one attacking creature without banding (even if it has “bands with other”) are all in a “band.” They may also declare that one or more attacking [quality] creatures with “bands with other [quality]” and any number of other attacking [quality] creatures are all in a band. A player may declare as many attacking bands as they want, but each creature may be a member of only one of them. (Defending players can’t declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 702.21j.)
702.21j
During the combat damage step, if an attacking creature is being blocked by a creature with banding, or by both a [quality] creature with “bands with other [quality]” and another [quality] creature, the defending player (rather than the active player) chooses how the attacking creature’s damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature’s combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures blocking it. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1c.
702.21j
During the combat damage step, if an attacking creature is being blocked by a creature with banding, or by both a [quality] creature with “bands with other [quality]” and another [quality] creature, the defending player (rather than the active player) chooses how the attacking creature’s damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature’s combat damage as they choose among any number of creatures blocking it. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1c.
702.21k
During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with “bands with other [quality]” and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature’s damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature’s combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures it’s blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.
702.21k
During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with “bands with other [quality]” and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature’s damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature’s combat damage as they choose among any number of creatures it’s blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.
702.25a
Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. During each player’s untap step, before the active player untaps his or her permanents, all phased-in permanents with phasing that player controls “phase out.” Simultaneously, all phased-out permanents that had phased out under that player’s control “phase in.”
702.25a
Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. During each player’s untap step, before the active player untaps permanents, all phased-in permanents with phasing that player controls “phase out.” Simultaneously, all phased-out permanents that had phased out under that player’s control “phase in.”
702.25k
If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step, the phasing event simply doesn’t occur that turn.
702.25k
If an effect causes a player to skip their untap step, the phasing event simply doesn’t occur that turn.
702.34a
Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player’s hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but exiles it instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn’t, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard.”
702.34a
Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player’s hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but exiles it instead of putting it into their graveyard” and “When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn’t, they put this card into their graveyard.”
702.39a
Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Storm” means “When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.”
702.39a
Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Storm” means “When you cast this spell, copy it for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.”
702.46d
Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 601.2c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.
702.46d
Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 601.2c). Note that a spell with one or more targets won’t resolve if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.
702.46e
The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it’s countered, it’s exiled, or it resolves).
702.46e
The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack for any reason.
702.49b
A player can’t cast spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves, but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.
702.49b
A player can’t cast spells once a spell with epic they control resolves, but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.
702.51b
A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way.
702.51b
A player with fewer cards in their library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into their graveyard this way.
702.56b
A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the card’s owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.
702.56b
A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the card’s owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from their hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in their hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.
702.68a
Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Gravestorm” means “When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from the battlefield this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.”
702.68a
Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Gravestorm” means “When you cast this spell, copy it for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from the battlefield this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.”
702.93b
If a player chooses to reveal a card using its miracle ability, he or she plays with that card revealed until that card leaves his or her hand, that ability resolves, or that ability otherwise leaves the stack.
702.93b
If a player chooses to reveal a card using its miracle ability, they play with that card revealed until that card leaves their hand, that ability resolves, or that ability otherwise leaves the stack.
702.101a
Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, “Split Cards”) that applies while the card with fuse is in a player’s hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card rather than choose one half. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.
702.101a
Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, “Split Cards”) that applies while the card with fuse is in a player’s hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from their hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card rather than choose one half. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.
702.114a
Ingest is a triggered ability. “Ingest” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player exiles the top card of his or her library.”
702.114a
Ingest is a triggered ability. “Ingest” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player exiles the top card of their library.”
702.115a
Myriad is a triggered ability that may also create a delayed triggered ability. “Myriad” means “Whenever this creature attacks, for each opponent other than defending player, you may create a token that’s a copy of this creature that’s tapped and attacking that player or a planeswalker he or she controls. If one or more tokens are created this way, exile the tokens at end of combat.”
702.115a
Myriad is a triggered ability that may also create a delayed triggered ability. “Myriad” means “Whenever this creature attacks, for each opponent other than defending player, you may create a token that’s a copy of this creature that’s tapped and attacking that player or a planeswalker they control. If one or more tokens are created this way, exile the tokens at end of combat.”
703.4b
Immediately after the phasing action has been completed during the untap step, the active player determines which permanents he or she controls will untap. Then he or she untaps them all simultaneously. See rule 502.2.
703.4b
Immediately after the phasing action has been completed during the untap step, the active player determines which permanents they control will untap. Then they untap them all simultaneously. See rule 502.2.
703.4d
In an Archenemy game (see rule 904), immediately after the archenemy’s precombat main phase begins, that player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion. See rule 701.23.
703.4d
In an Archenemy game (see rule 904), immediately after the archenemy’s precombat main phase begins, that player sets the top card of their scheme deck in motion. See rule 701.24.
703.4e
Immediately after a player’s precombat main phase begins, that player puts a lore counter on each Saga enchantment they control. In an Archenemy game, this happens after the archenemy’s scheme action. See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”
703.4e
Immediately after the beginning of combat step begins, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player’s opponents don’t all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. That player becomes the defending player. See rule 507.1.
703.4f
Immediately after the beginning of combat step begins, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player’s opponents don’t all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of their opponents. That player becomes the defending player. See rule 507.1.
703.4j
Immediately after the combat damage step begins, each player in APNAP order announces how each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls assigns its combat damage. See rule 510.1.
703.4k
Immediately after the combat damage step begins, each player in APNAP order announces how each attacking or blocking creature they control assigns its combat damage. See rule 510.1.
703.4m
Immediately after the cleanup step begins, if the active player’s hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven), he or she discards enough cards to reduce his or her hand size to that number. See rule 514.1.
703.4n
Immediately after the cleanup step begins, if the active player’s hand contains more cards than their maximum hand size (normally seven), they discard enough cards to reduce their hand size to that number. See rule 514.1.
704.5a
If a player has 0 or less life, he or she loses the game.
704.5a
If a player has 0 or less life, that player loses the game.
704.5b
If a player attempted to draw a card from a library with no cards in it since the last time state-based actions were checked, he or she loses the game.
704.5b
If a player attempted to draw a card from a library with no cards in it since the last time state-based actions were checked, that player loses the game.
704.5c
If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game. Ignore this rule in Two-Headed Giant games; see rule 704.5t instead.
704.5c
If a player has ten or more poison counters, that player loses the game. Ignore this rule in Two-Headed Giant games; see rule 704.5u instead.
704.5s
If the number of lore counters on a Saga permanent is greater than or equal to its final chapter number and it isn’t the source of a chapter ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that Saga’s controller sacrifices it. See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”
707.9.
If a face-down permanent moves from the battlefield to any other zone, its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. If a face-down spell moves from the stack to any zone other than the battlefield, its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. If a player leaves the game, all face-down permanents and spells owned by that player must be revealed to all players. At the end of each game, all face-down permanents and spells must be revealed to all players.
707.9.
If a face-down permanent moves from the battlefield to any other zone, its owner must reveal it to all players as they move it. If a face-down spell moves from the stack to any zone other than the battlefield, its owner must reveal it to all players as they move it. If a player leaves the game, all face-down permanents and spells owned by that player must be revealed to all players. At the end of each game, all face-down permanents and spells must be revealed to all players.
708.3.
A player chooses which half of a split card he or she is casting before putting it onto the stack.
708.3.
A player chooses which half of a split card they are casting before putting it onto the stack.
711.1.
A double-faced card has a Magic card face on each side rather than a Magic card face on one side and a Magic card back on the other. Each face may have abilities that allow the card to “transform,” or turn over to its other face. Tokens and cards with a Magic card back can’t transform. (See rule 701.26, “Transform.”)
711.1.
A double-faced card has a Magic card face on each side rather than a Magic card face on one side and a Magic card back on the other. Each face may have abilities that allow the card to “transform,” or turn over to its other face. Tokens and cards with a Magic card back can’t transform. (See rule 701.27, “Transform.”)
711.5.
Only permanents represented by double-faced cards can transform. (See rule 701.26, “Transform.”) If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform any permanent that isn’t represented by a double-faced card, nothing happens.
711.5.
Only permanents represented by double-faced cards can transform. (See rule 701.27, “Transform.”) If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform any permanent that isn’t represented by a double-faced card, nothing happens.
712.2.
One card in each meld pair has an ability that exiles both that object and its counterpart and melds them. To meld the two cards in a meld pair, put them onto the battlefield with their back faces up and combined (see rule 701.35, “Meld”). The resulting permanent is a single object represented by two cards.
712.2.
One card in each meld pair has an ability that exiles both that object and its counterpart and melds them. To meld the two cards in a meld pair, put them onto the battlefield with their back faces up and combined (see rule 701.36, “Meld”). The resulting permanent is a single object represented by two cards.
714.1.
Some cards allow a player to control another player during that player’s next turn. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The affected player is controlled during the entire turn; the effect doesn’t end until the beginning of the next turn.
714.1.
Each Saga card has a striated text box containing a number of chapter symbols. Its illustration is vertically oriented on the right side of the card, and its type line is along the bottom of the card.
714.1a
Multiple player-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. The last one to be created is the one that works.
714.1b
If a turn is skipped, any pending player-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn.
714.2.
One card (Word of Command) allows a player to control another player for a limited duration.
714.2.
A chapter symbol is a keyword ability that represents a triggered ability referred to as a chapter ability.
714.2a
A chapter symbol includes a Roman numeral, indicated here as “{rN}.” The numeral I represents 1, II represents 2, and III represents 3.
714.2b
“{rN}—[Effect]” means “When one or more lore counters are put onto this Saga, if the number of lore counters on it was less than N and became at least N, [effect].”
714.2c
“{rN1}, {rN2}—[Effect]” means the same as “{rN1}—[Effect]” and “{rN2}—[Effect].”
714.2d
A Saga’s final chapter number is the greatest value among chapter abilities it has. If a Saga somehow has no chapter abilities, its final chapter number is 0.
714.3.
Only control of the player changes. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. A player who’s being controlled during his or her turn is still the active player.
714.3.
Sagas use lore counters to track their progress.
714.3a
As a Saga enters the battlefield, its controller puts a lore counter it.
714.3b
As a player’s precombat main phase begins, that player puts a lore counter on each Saga they control. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.
714.4.
If information about an object in the game would be visible to the player being controlled, it’s visible to both that player and the controller of the player. If information about cards outside the game would be visible to the player being controlled, it’s visible only to that player, not the controller of the player.
714.4.
If the number of lore counters on a Saga permanent is greater than or equal to its final chapter number, and it isn’t the source of a chapter ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that Saga’s controller sacrifices it. This state-based action doesn’t use the stack.
714.5.
While controlling another player, a player makes all choices and decisions the controlled player is allowed to make or is told to make by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.
714.5a
The controller of another player can use only that player’s resources (cards, mana, and so on) to pay costs for that player.
714.5b
The controller of another player can’t make choices or decisions for that player that aren’t called for by the rules or by any objects. The controller also can’t make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules.
714.6.
The controller of another player can’t make that player concede. A player may concede the game at any time, even if he or she is controlled by another player. See rule 104.3a.
714.7.
The effect that gives control of a player to another player may restrict the actions the controlled player is allowed to take or specify actions that the controlled player must take.
714.8.
A player who controls another player also continues to make his or her own choices and decisions.
714.9.
A player may gain control of himself or herself. That player will make his or her own decisions and choices as normal.
715.1.
Some cards end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, “Resolving Spells and Abilities”).
715.1.
Some cards allow a player to control another player during that player’s next turn. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The affected player is controlled during the entire turn; the effect doesn’t end until the beginning of the next turn.
715.1a
If there are any triggered abilities that triggered before this process began but haven’t been put onto the stack yet, those abilities cease to exist. They won’t be put onto the stack. This rule does not apply to abilities that trigger during this process (see rule 715.2).
715.1a
Multiple player-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. The last one to be created is the one that works.
715.1b
Exile every object on the stack, including the object that’s resolving. Remove all creatures and planeswalkers from combat. All objects not on the battlefield or in the command zone that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, “State-Based Actions”).
715.1b
If a turn is skipped, any pending player-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn.
715.1c
Check state-based actions. No player gets priority, and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.
715.1d
The current phase and/or step ends. The game skips straight to the cleanup step; skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step. If an effect ends the turn during the cleanup step, a new cleanup step begins.
715.2.
No player gets priority during this process, so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. If any triggered abilities have triggered since this process began, those abilities are put onto the stack during the cleanup step, then the active player gets priority and players can cast spells and activate abilities. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends. If no triggered abilities have triggered during this process, no player gets priority during the cleanup step. See rule 514, “Cleanup Step.”
715.2.
One card (Word of Command) allows a player to control another player for a limited duration.
715.3.
Even though the turn ends, “at the beginning of the end step” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end step is skipped.
715.3.
Only control of the player changes. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. A player who’s being controlled during their turn is still the active player.
715.4.
If information about an object in the game would be visible to the player being controlled, it’s visible to both that player and the controller of the player. If information about cards outside the game would be visible to the player being controlled, it’s visible only to that player, not the controller of the player.
715.5.
While controlling another player, a player makes all choices and decisions the controlled player is allowed to make or is told to make by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.
715.5a
The controller of another player can use only that player’s resources (cards, mana, and so on) to pay costs for that player.
715.5b
The controller of another player can’t make choices or decisions for that player that aren’t called for by the rules or by any objects. The controller also can’t make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules.
715.6.
The controller of another player can’t make that player concede. A player may concede the game at any time, even if they are controlled by another player. See rule 104.3a.
715.7.
The effect that gives control of a player to another player may restrict the actions the controlled player is allowed to take or specify actions that the controlled player must take.
715.8.
A player who controls another player also continues to make their own choices and decisions.
715.9.
A player may gain control of themselves. That player will make their own decisions and choices as normal.
716.1.
The monarch is a designation a player can have. There is no monarch in a game until an effect instructs a player to become the monarch.
716.1.
Some cards end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, “Resolving Spells and Abilities”).
716.1a
If there are any triggered abilities that triggered before this process began but haven’t been put onto the stack yet, those abilities cease to exist. They won’t be put onto the stack. This rule does not apply to abilities that trigger during this process (see rule 716.2).
716.1b
Exile every object on the stack, including the object that’s resolving. Remove all creatures and planeswalkers from combat. All objects not on the battlefield or in the command zone that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, “State-Based Actions”).
716.1c
Check state-based actions. No player gets priority, and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.
716.1d
The current phase and/or step ends. The game skips straight to the cleanup step; skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step. If an effect ends the turn during the cleanup step, a new cleanup step begins.
716.2.
There are two inherent triggered abilities associated with being the monarch. These triggered abilities have no source and are controlled by the player who was the monarch at the time the abilities triggered. This is an exception to rule 112.8. The full texts of these abilities are “At the beginning of the monarch’s end step, that player draws a card” and “Whenever a creature deals combat damage to the monarch, its controller becomes the monarch.”
716.2.
No player gets priority during this process, so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. If any triggered abilities have triggered since this process began, those abilities are put onto the stack during the cleanup step, then the active player gets priority and players can cast spells and activate abilities. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends. If no triggered abilities have triggered during this process, no player gets priority during the cleanup step. See rule 514, “Cleanup Step.”
716.3.
Only one player can be the monarch at a time. As a player becomes the monarch, the current monarch ceases to be the monarch.
716.3.
Even though the turn ends, “at the beginning of the end step” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end step is skipped.
716.4.
If the monarch leaves the game, the active player becomes the monarch at the same time as that player leaves the game. If the active player is leaving the game or if there is no active player, the next player in turn order becomes the monarch.
717.1.
One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. A game that is restarted immediately ends. No players in that game win, lose, or draw that game. All players in that game when it ended then start a new game following the procedures set forth in rule 103, “Starting the Game,” with the following exception:
717.1.
The monarch is a designation a player can have. There is no monarch in a game until an effect instructs a player to become the monarch.
717.1a
The starting player in the new game is the player who controlled the spell or ability that restarted the game.
717.2.
All Magic cards involved in the game that was restarted when it ended, including phased-out permanents and nontraditional Magic cards, are involved in the new game, even if those cards were not originally involved in the restarted game. Ownership of cards in the new game doesn’t change, regardless of their location when the new game begins.
717.2.
There are two inherent triggered abilities associated with being the monarch. These triggered abilities have no source and are controlled by the player who was the monarch at the time the abilities triggered. This is an exception to rule 112.8. The full texts of these abilities are “At the beginning of the monarch’s end step, that player draws a card” and “Whenever a creature deals combat damage to the monarch, its controller becomes the monarch.”
717.3.
Because each player draws seven cards when the new game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her library will lose the game when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
717.3.
Only one player can be the monarch at a time. As a player becomes the monarch, the current monarch ceases to be the monarch.
717.4.
The effect that restarts the game finishes resolving just before the first turn’s untap step. If the spell or ability that generated that effect has additional instructions, those instructions are followed at this time. No player has priority, and any triggered abilities that trigger as a result will go on the stack the next time a player receives priority, usually during the first turn’s upkeep step.
717.4.
If the monarch leaves the game, the active player becomes the monarch at the same time as that player leaves the game. If the active player is leaving the game or if there is no active player, the next player in turn order becomes the monarch.
717.5.
Effects may exempt certain cards from the procedure that restarts the game. These cards are not in their owner’s deck as the new game begins.
717.5a
In a Commander game, a commander that has been exempted from the procedure that restarts the game won’t begin the new game in the command zone. However, it remains that deck’s commander for the new game. See rule 903, “Commander.”
717.6.
If a Magic subgame (see rule 718) is restarted, the main game is unaffected. Main-game effects that refer to the winner or loser of the subgame now refer to the winner or loser of the restarted subgame.
717.7.
If a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801) is restarted, all players in the game are involved, regardless of the range of influence of the player who controls the ability that restarted the game.
718.1.
One card (Shahrazad) allows players to play a Magic subgame.
718.1.
One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. A game that is restarted immediately ends. No players in that game win, lose, or draw that game. All players in that game when it ended then start a new game following the procedures set forth in rule 103, “Starting the Game,” with the following exception:
718.1a
A “subgame” is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it’s a game within a game. The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was cast or activated. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.
718.1a
The starting player in the new game is the player who controlled the spell or ability that restarted the game.
718.1b
No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other, except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. For example, the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.
718.2.
As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 718.2a–d. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in rule 103, “Starting the Game.”
718.2.
All Magic cards involved in the game that was restarted when it ended, including phased-out permanents and nontraditional Magic cards, are involved in the new game, even if those cards were not originally involved in the restarted game. Ownership of cards in the new game doesn’t change, regardless of their location when the new game begins.
718.2a
As a subgame of a Planechase game starts, each player moves his or her planar deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up plane and phenomenon cards remain in the main-game command zone.)
718.2b
As a subgame of a Vanguard game starts, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone.
718.2c
As a subgame of a Commander game starts, each player moves his or her commander from the main-game command zone (if it’s there) to the subgame command zone.
718.2d
As a subgame of an Archenemy game starts, the archenemy moves his or her scheme deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up scheme cards remain in the main-game command zone.)
718.3.
Because each player draws seven cards when a game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
718.3.
Because each player draws seven cards when the new game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in their library will lose the game when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
718.4.
All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.
718.4.
The effect that restarts the game finishes resolving just before the first turn’s untap step. If the spell or ability that generated that effect has additional instructions, those instructions are followed at this time. No player has priority, and any triggered abilities that trigger as a result will go on the stack the next time a player receives priority, usually during the first turn’s upkeep step.
718.4a
Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game, abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger, but they won’t be put onto the stack until the main game resumes.
718.4b
A player’s main-game counters aren’t considered part of the subgame, although the player will still have them when the main game resumes. Similarly, any counters a player gets during a subgame will cease to exist when the subgame ends.
718.5.
At the end of a subgame, each player takes all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame other than those in the subgame command zone, puts them into his or her main-game library, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame’s exile zone. Except as specified in rules 718.5a–c, all other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that’s no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.
718.5.
Effects may exempt certain cards from the procedure that restarts the game. These cards are not in their owner’s deck as the new game begins.
718.5a
At the end of a subgame of a Planechase game, each face-up plane card or phenomenon card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner’s planar deck. Then each player moves his or her planar deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.
718.5a
In a Commander game, a commander that has been exempted from the procedure that restarts the game won’t begin the new game in the command zone. However, it remains that deck’s commander for the new game. See rule 903, “Commander.”
718.5b
At the end of a subgame of a Vanguard game, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone. This is an exception to rule 311.2.
718.5c
At the end of a subgame of a Commander game, each player moves his or her commander from the subgame command zone (if it’s there) to the main-game command zone.
718.5d
At the end of a subgame of an Archenemy game, any face-up scheme cards in the subgame command zone are turned face down and put on the bottom of their owner’s scheme deck. Then the archenemy moves his or her scheme deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.
718.6.
A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame.
718.6.
If a Magic subgame (see rule 719) is restarted, the main game is unaffected. Main-game effects that refer to the winner or loser of the subgame now refer to the winner or loser of the restarted subgame.
718.7.
If a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801) is restarted, all players in the game are involved, regardless of the range of influence of the player who controls the ability that restarted the game.
719.1.
When playing a game, players typically make use of mutually understood shortcuts rather than explicitly identifying each game choice (either taking an action or passing priority) a player makes.
719.1.
One card (Shahrazad) allows players to play a Magic subgame.
719.1a
The rules for taking shortcuts are largely informal. As long as each player in the game understands the intent of each other player, any shortcut system they use is acceptable.
719.1a
A “subgame” is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it’s a game within a game. The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was cast or activated. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.
719.1b
Occasionally the game gets into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated indefinitely (thus creating a “loop”). In that case, the shortcut rules can be used to determine how many times those actions are repeated without having to actually perform them, and how the loop is broken.
719.1b
No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other, except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. For example, the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.
719.2.
Taking a shortcut follows the following procedure.
719.2.
As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in their main-game library, moves them to their subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 719.2a–d. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in rule 103, “Starting the Game.”
719.2a
At any point in the game, the player with priority may suggest a shortcut by describing a sequence of game choices, for all players, that may be legally taken based on the current game state and the predictable results of the sequence of choices. This sequence may be a non-repetitive series of choices, a loop that repeats a specified number of times, multiple loops, or nested loops, and may even cross multiple turns. It can’t include conditional actions, where the outcome of a game event determines the next action a player takes. The ending point of this sequence must be a place where a player has priority, though it need not be the player proposing the shortcut.
719.2a
As a subgame of a Planechase game starts, each player moves their planar deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up plane and phenomenon cards remain in the main-game command zone.)
719.2b
Each other player, in turn order starting after the player who suggested the shortcut, may either accept the proposed sequence, or shorten it by naming a place where he or she will make a game choice that’s different than what’s been proposed. (The player doesn’t need to specify at this time what the new choice will be.) This place becomes the new ending point of the proposed sequence.
719.2b
As a subgame of a Vanguard game starts, each player moves their vanguard card from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone.
719.2c
Once the last player has either accepted or shortened the shortcut proposal, the shortcut is taken. The game advances to the last proposed ending point, with all game choices contained in the shortcut proposal having been taken. If the shortcut was shortened from the original proposal, the player who now has priority must make a different game choice than what was originally proposed for that player.
719.2c
As a subgame of a Commander game starts, each player moves their commander from the main-game command zone (if it’s there) to the subgame command zone.
719.2d
As a subgame of an Archenemy game starts, the archenemy moves their scheme deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up scheme cards remain in the main-game command zone.)
719.3.
Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player involved in the loop performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved in the loop, the first player in turn order who is involved) must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.
719.3.
Because each player draws seven cards when a game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in their deck will lose the subgame when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
719.4.
If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game is a draw. (See rules 104.4b and 104.4f.)
719.4.
All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.
719.4a
Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game, abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger, but they won’t be put onto the stack until the main game resumes.
719.4b
A player’s main-game counters aren’t considered part of the subgame, although the player will still have them when the main game resumes. Similarly, any counters a player gets during a subgame will cease to exist when the subgame ends.
719.5.
No player can be forced to perform an action that would end a loop other than actions called for by objects involved in the loop.
719.5.
At the end of a subgame, each player takes all cards they own that are in the subgame other than those in the subgame command zone, puts them into their main-game library, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame’s exile zone. Except as specified in rules 719.5a–c, all other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that’s no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.
719.5a
At the end of a subgame of a Planechase game, each face-up plane card or phenomenon card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner’s planar deck. Then each player moves their planar deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.
719.5b
At the end of a subgame of a Vanguard game, each player moves their vanguard card from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone. This is an exception to rule 311.2.
719.5c
At the end of a subgame of a Commander game, each player moves their commander from the subgame command zone (if it’s there) to the main-game command zone.
719.5d
At the end of a subgame of an Archenemy game, any face-up scheme cards in the subgame command zone are turned face down and put on the bottom of their owner’s scheme deck. Then the archenemy moves their scheme deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.
719.6.
If a loop contains an effect that says “[A] unless [B],” where [A] and [B] are each actions, no player can be forced to perform [B] to break the loop. If no player chooses to perform [B], the loop will continue as though [A] were mandatory.
719.6.
A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame.
720.1.
If a player takes an illegal action or starts to take an action but can’t legally complete it, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn’t reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library, moved cards from a library to any zone other than the stack, caused a library to be shuffled, or caused cards from a library to be revealed.
720.1.
When playing a game, players typically make use of mutually understood shortcuts rather than explicitly identifying each game choice (either taking an action or passing priority) a player makes.
720.1a
The rules for taking shortcuts are largely informal. As long as each player in the game understands the intent of each other player, any shortcut system they use is acceptable.
720.1b
Occasionally the game gets into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated indefinitely (thus creating a “loop”). In that case, the shortcut rules can be used to determine how many times those actions are repeated without having to actually perform them, and how the loop is broken.
720.2.
When reversing illegal spells and abilities, the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules.
720.2.
Taking a shortcut follows the following procedure.
720.2a
At any point in the game, the player with priority may suggest a shortcut by describing a sequence of game choices, for all players, that may be legally taken based on the current game state and the predictable results of the sequence of choices. This sequence may be a non-repetitive series of choices, a loop that repeats a specified number of times, multiple loops, or nested loops, and may even cross multiple turns. It can’t include conditional actions, where the outcome of a game event determines the next action a player takes. The ending point of this sequence must be a place where a player has priority, though it need not be the player proposing the shortcut.
720.2b
Each other player, in turn order starting after the player who suggested the shortcut, may either accept the proposed sequence, or shorten it by naming a place where they will make a game choice that’s different than what’s been proposed. (The player doesn’t need to specify at this time what the new choice will be.) This place becomes the new ending point of the proposed sequence.
720.2c
Once the last player has either accepted or shortened the shortcut proposal, the shortcut is taken. The game advances to the last proposed ending point, with all game choices contained in the shortcut proposal having been taken. If the shortcut was shortened from the original proposal, the player who now has priority must make a different game choice than what was originally proposed for that player.
720.3.
Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player involved in the loop performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved in the loop, the first player in turn order who is involved) must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.
720.4.
If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game is a draw. (See rules 104.4b and 104.4f.)
720.5.
No player can be forced to perform an action that would end a loop other than actions called for by objects involved in the loop.
720.6.
If a loop contains an effect that says “[A] unless [B],” where [A] and [B] are each actions, no player can be forced to perform [B] to break the loop. If no player chooses to perform [B], the loop will continue as though [A] were mandatory.
721.1.
If a player takes an illegal action or starts to take an action but can’t legally complete it, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn’t reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library, moved cards from a library to any zone other than the stack, caused a library to be shuffled, or caused cards from a library to be revealed.
721.2.
When reversing illegal spells and abilities, the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules.
800.4a
When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 109) owned by that player leave the game and any effects which give that player control of any objects or players end. Then, if that player controlled any objects on the stack not represented by cards, those objects cease to exist. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects are exiled. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left, priority passes to the next player in turn order who’s still in the game.
800.4a
When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 109) owned by that player leave the game and any effects which give that player control of any objects or players end. Then, if that player controlled any objects on the stack not represented by cards, those objects cease to exist. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects are exiled. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. If the player who left the game had priority at the time they left, priority passes to the next player in turn order who’s still in the game.
800.4b
If an object would change to the control of a player who has left the game, it doesn’t. If a token would be created under the control of a player who has left the game, no token is created. If an object would be put onto the battlefield or onto the stack under the control of a player who has left the game, that object remains in its current zone. If a player would be controlled by a player who has left the game, he or she isn’t.
800.4b
If an object would change to the control of a player who has left the game, it doesn’t. If a token would be created under the control of a player who has left the game, no token is created. If an object would be put onto the battlefield or onto the stack under the control of a player who has left the game, that object remains in its current zone. If a player would be controlled by a player who has left the game, they aren’t.
800.4h
If an effect requires information about a specific player, the effect uses the current information about that player if he or she is still in the game; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game.
800.4h
If an effect requires information about a specific player, the effect uses the current information about that player if they are still in the game; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information about that player before they left the game.
800.4i
If a player leaves the game during his or her turn, that turn continues to its completion without an active player. If the active player would receive priority, instead the next player in turn order receives priority, or the top object on the stack resolves, or the phase or step ends, whichever is appropriate.
800.4i
If a player leaves the game during their turn, that turn continues to its completion without an active player. If the active player would receive priority, instead the next player in turn order receives priority, or the top object on the stack resolves, or the phase or step ends, whichever is appropriate.
800.5.
In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of as many cards as he or she had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.
800.5.
In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, they draw a new hand of as many cards as they had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.
800.6.
In a multiplayer game other than a Two-Headed Giant game, the starting player doesn’t skip the draw step of his or her first turn. In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. See rule 103.7.
800.6.
In a multiplayer game other than a Two-Headed Giant game, the starting player doesn’t skip the draw step of their first turn. In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. See rule 103.7.
801.2b
A player is always within his or her own range of influence.
801.2b
A player is always within their own range of influence.
801.5a
If a player is asked to choose an object or player, he or she must choose one within his or her range of influence.
801.5a
If a player is asked to choose an object or player, they must choose one within their range of influence.
801.5b
If a player is asked to choose between one or more options (and not between one or more objects or players), he or she can choose between those options even if those options refer to objects or players outside the player’s range of influence.
801.5b
If a player is asked to choose between one or more options (and not between one or more objects or players), they can choose between those options even if those options refer to objects or players outside the player’s range of influence.
801.6.
A player can’t activate the activated abilities of an object outside of his or her range of influence.
801.6.
A player can’t activate the activated abilities of an object outside of their range of influence.
801.14.
If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.
801.14.
If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player’s opponents within that player’s range of influence lose the game instead.
801.15.
If the effect of a spell or ability states that the game is a draw, the game is a draw for that spell or ability’s controller and all players within his or her range of influence. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.
801.15.
If the effect of a spell or ability states that the game is a draw, the game is a draw for that spell or ability’s controller and all players within that player’s range of influence. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.
801.17.
Effects that restart the game (see rule 717) are exempt from the limited range of influence option. All players in the game will be involved in the new game.
801.17.
Effects that restart the game (see rule 718) are exempt from the limited range of influence option. All players in the game will be involved in the new game.
802.3.
As the attacking player declares each attacking creature, he or she chooses a defending player or a planeswalker controlled by a defending player for it to attack. See rule 508, “Declare Attackers Step.”
802.3.
As the attacking player declares each attacking creature, they choose a defending player or a planeswalker controlled by a defending player for it to attack. See rule 508, “Declare Attackers Step.”
802.4.
If more than one player is being attacked or controls a planeswalker that’s being attacked, each defending player in APNAP order declares blockers as the declare blockers step begins. (See rule 101.4 and rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”) The first defending player declares all his or her blocks, then the second defending player, and so on.
802.4.
If more than one player is being attacked or controls a planeswalker that’s being attacked, each defending player in APNAP order declares blockers as the declare blockers step begins. (See rule 101.4 and rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”) The first defending player declares all their blocks, then the second defending player, and so on.
802.4a
A defending player can block only with creatures he or she controls. Those creatures can block only creatures attacking that player or a planeswalker that player controls.
802.4a
A defending player can block only with creatures they control. Those creatures can block only creatures attacking that player or a planeswalker that player controls.
802.5.
After blockers have been declared, if any creatures are blocking multiple creatures, each defending player in APNAP order announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures for each blocking creature he or she controls. See rule 510, “Combat Damage Step.”
802.5.
After blockers have been declared, if any creatures are blocking multiple creatures, each defending player in APNAP order announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures for each blocking creature they control. See rule 510, “Combat Damage Step.”
803.1a
If the attack left option is used, a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away, the player can’t attack.
803.1a
If the attack left option is used, a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to their left. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away, the player can’t attack.
803.1b
If the attack right option is used, a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away, the player can’t attack.
803.1b
If the attack right option is used, a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to their right. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away, the player can’t attack.
805.3a
The process for handling mulligans is altered accordingly. First, each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand. After all players have kept an opening hand, any player on the starting team whose hand contains fewer cards than that player’s starting hand size may look at the top card of his or her library. That player’s teammates may also look at that card. The player may put that card on the bottom of his or her library. This process is repeated for each other team in turn order. See rule 103.4.
805.3a
The process for handling mulligans is altered accordingly. First, each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, declares whether that player will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after a teammate has decided to keep their opening hand. After all players have kept an opening hand, any player on the starting team whose hand contains fewer cards than that player’s starting hand size may look at the top card of their library. That player’s teammates may also look at that card. The player may put that card on the bottom of their library. This process is repeated for each other team in turn order. See rule 103.4.
805.3b
The process for handling cards that allow a player to begin the game with them on the battlefield is altered accordingly. First, each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, may put any or all such cards onto the battlefield from his or her opening hand. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then each player on each other team in turn order does the same.
805.3b
The process for handling cards that allow a player to begin the game with them on the battlefield is altered accordingly. First, each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, may put any or all such cards onto the battlefield from that player’s opening hand. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then each player on each other team in turn order does the same.
805.5a
A player may cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action when his or her team has priority.
805.5a
A player may cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action when their team has priority.
805.6a
If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a game that’s using the shared team turns option, first each player on the active team, in whatever order that team likes, performs his or her draws, then each player on each nonactive team in turn order does the same.
805.6a
If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a game that’s using the shared team turns option, first each player on the active team, in whatever order that team likes, performs that player’s draws, then each player on each nonactive team in turn order does the same.
807.4c
After a player ends his or her turn, that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. If a player with a turn marker leaves the game during his or her turn, the player to his or her left takes the turn marker after that turn ends. If a player with a turn marker leaves the game before his or her turn begins, the player to his or her left takes the turn marker immediately.
807.4c
After a player ends their turn, that player passes the turn marker to the player on their left. If a player with a turn marker leaves the game during their turn, the player to their left takes the turn marker after that turn ends. If a player with a turn marker leaves the game before their turn begins, the player to their left takes the turn marker immediately.
807.4d
A player who receives a turn marker can’t begin his or her turn if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. If this is the case, that player waits until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker.
807.4d
A player who receives a turn marker can’t begin their turn if any player in the three seats to their left has a turn marker. If this is the case, that player waits until the player four seats to their left takes the other turn marker.
807.4i
If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one, that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends, unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s left, the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s right, the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it, and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn.
807.4i
If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one, that player keeps the turn marker and starts their next turn after the current turn ends, unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s left, the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to their left takes the other turn marker. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s right, the player passes the turn marker to their left when the turn ends rather than keeping it, and the player will take the extra turn immediately before their next turn.
807.4j
If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn’t have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.
807.4j
If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn’t have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before their next turn instead.
807.5a
A player gets priority for a particular turn marker’s stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence.
807.5a
A player gets priority for a particular turn marker’s stack only if the turn marker is within their range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within their range of influence.
807.5b
If a player has priority for multiple stacks and casts a spell, activates an ability, or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers, the player must specify which one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger, the player must put it on that stack. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to cast a spell or create a copy of a spell, the new spell must be put on the same stack. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks, it must be put on the same stack as its target; it can’t target objects on multiple stacks.
807.5b
If a player has priority for multiple stacks and casts a spell, activates an ability, or a triggered ability they control triggers, the player must specify which one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger, the player must put it on that stack. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to cast a spell or create a copy of a spell, the new spell must be put on the same stack. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks, it must be put on the same stack as its target; it can’t target objects on multiple stacks.
809.3c
A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.
809.3c
A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to them.
809.6a
Each general’s range of influence should be the minimum number that allows one general from an opposing team to begin the game within his or her range of influence. Each emperor’s range of influence should be the minimum number that allows two generals from opposing teams to begin the game within his or her range of influence. Players should be seated such that no emperor begins the game within the range of influence of another emperor.
809.6a
Each general’s range of influence should be the minimum number that allows one general from an opposing team to begin the game within their range of influence. Each emperor’s range of influence should be the minimum number that allows two generals from opposing teams to begin the game within their range of influence. Players should be seated such that no emperor begins the game within the range of influence of another emperor.
810.7.
The Two-Headed Giant variant uses a modified version of the combat rules for the shared team turns option.
810.7.
The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the combat rules for the shared team turns option (see rule 805.10). This is a change from previous rules.
810.7a
Each team’s creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player.
810.7b
Any one-shot effect that refers to the “defending player” refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the “attacking player.”
810.7c
As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can’t attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.
810.7d
As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 509.1.
810.7e
Once blockers have been declared, for each attacking creature that’s become blocked by multiple creatures, the active team announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. Then, for each creature that’s blocking multiple creatures, the defending team announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures.
810.7f
As the combat damage step begins, the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team, the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. See rule 510.1.
810.8b
If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.
810.8b
If a player concedes, their team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.
810.9e
A player can’t exchange life totals with his or her teammate. If an effect would cause that to occur, the exchange won’t happen.
810.9e
A player can’t exchange life totals with their teammate. If an effect would cause that to occur, the exchange won’t happen.
810.10d
If a rule or effect needs to know what kinds of counters an individual player has, that effect uses the kinds of counters that player has and the kinds of counters that player’s team has. A player is “poisoned” if his or her team has one or more poison counters.
810.10d
If a rule or effect needs to know what kinds of counters an individual player has, that effect uses the kinds of counters that player has and the kinds of counters that player’s team has. A player is “poisoned” if that player’s team has one or more poison counters.
811.4.
A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her.
811.4.
A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to them.
901.4.
At the start of the game, each player shuffles his or her planar deck so that the cards are in a random order. Each deck is placed face down next to its owner’s library. All plane and phenomenon cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they’re part of a planar deck and while they’re face up.
901.4.
At the start of the game, each player shuffles their planar deck so that the cards are in a random order. Each deck is placed face down next to its owner’s library. All plane and phenomenon cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they’re part of a planar deck and while they’re face up.
901.5.
Once all players have kept their opening hands and used the abilities of cards that allow them to take an action with those cards from their opening hands, the starting player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. If it’s a plane card, that card is the starting plane. If it’s a phenomenon card, the player puts that card on the bottom of his or her planar deck and repeats this process until a plane card is turned face up. (See rule 103.6.) No abilities of any card turned face up this way trigger during this process.
901.5.
Once all players have kept their opening hands and used the abilities of cards that allow them to take an action with those cards from their opening hands, the starting player moves the top card of their planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. If it’s a phenomenon card, the player puts that card on the bottom of their planar deck and repeats this process until a plane card is turned face up. (See rule 103.6.) No abilities of any card turned face up this way trigger during this process. The face-up plane card becomes the starting plane.
901.6.
The owner of a plane or phenomenon card is the player who started the game with it in his or her planar deck. The controller of a face-up plane or phenomenon card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.
901.6.
The owner of a plane or phenomenon card is the player who started the game with it in their planar deck. The controller of a face-up plane or phenomenon card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until they leave the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.
901.8.
Planechase games have an inherent triggered ability known as the “planeswalking ability.” The full text of this ability is “Whenever you roll {PW}, planeswalk.” (See rule 701.22, “Planeswalk.”) This ability has no source and is controlled by the player whose planar die roll caused it to trigger. This is an exception to rule 112.8.
901.8.
Planechase games have an inherent triggered ability known as the “planeswalking ability.” The full text of this ability is “Whenever you roll {PW}, planeswalk.” (See rule 701.23, “Planeswalk.”) This ability has no source and is controlled by the player whose planar die roll caused it to trigger. This is an exception to rule 112.8.
901.9.
Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of his or her turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn’t use the stack. Note that this number won’t be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. (See rule 115.2g.)
901.9.
Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of their turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times they have previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn’t use the stack. Note that this number won’t be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. (See rule 115.2g.)
901.10.
When a player leaves the game, all objects owned by that player except abilities from phenomena leave the game. (See rule 800.4a.) If that includes a face-up plane card or phenomenon card, the planar controller turns the top card of his or her planar deck face up. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game.
901.10.
When a player leaves the game, all objects owned by that player except abilities from phenomena leave the game. (See rule 800.4a.) If that includes a face-up plane card or phenomenon card, the planar controller turns the top card of their planar deck face up. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game.
901.11.
After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has “planeswalked.” Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.22.
901.11.
After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of their planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has “planeswalked.” Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.23.
901.11a
A player may planeswalk as the result of the “planeswalking ability” (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon’s triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.5w). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.
901.11a
A player may planeswalk as the result of the “planeswalking ability” (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon’s triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.5x). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.
901.12a
Each player has his or her own planar deck.
901.12a
Each player has their own planar deck.
901.12b
The planar controller is normally the primary player of the active team. However, if the current planar controller’s team would leave the game, instead the primary player of the next team in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller’s team leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different team becomes the active team, whichever comes first.
901.12b
The planar controller is normally the primary player of the active team. However, if the current planar controller’s team would leave the game, instead the primary player of the next team in turn order that wouldn’t leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller’s team leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until they leave the game or a different team becomes the active team, whichever comes first.
902.4.
Each player’s starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of his or her vanguard card.
902.4.
Each player’s starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of their vanguard card.
902.5.
Each player’s starting hand size is seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.
902.5.
Each player’s starting hand size is seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of their vanguard card.
902.5a
If a player takes a mulligan in a Vanguard game, just like in a normal game, that player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. (In a multiplayer game, a player’s first mulligan is for the same number of cards as he or she had before.) See rule 103.4.
902.5a
If a player takes a mulligan in a Vanguard game, just like in a normal game, that player shuffles their hand back into their library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than they had before. (In a multiplayer game, a player’s first mulligan is for the same number of cards as they had before.) See rule 103.4.
902.5b
A player’s maximum hand size is seven, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.
902.5b
A player’s maximum hand size is seven, as modified by the hand modifier of their vanguard card.
903.6.
At the start of the game, each player puts his or her commander from his or her deck face up into the command zone. Then each player shuffles the remaining 99 cards of his or her deck so that the cards are in a random order. Those cards become the player’s library.
903.6.
At the start of the game, each player puts their commander from their deck face up into the command zone. Then each player shuffles the remaining 99 cards of their deck so that the cards are in a random order. Those cards become the player’s library.
903.7.
Once the starting player has been determined, each player sets his or her life total to 40 and draws a hand of seven cards.
903.7.
Once the starting player has been determined, each player sets their life total to 40 and draws a hand of seven cards.
903.8.
A player may cast a commander he or she owns from the command zone. A commander cast from the command zone costs an additional {2} for each previous time the player casting it has cast it from the command zone that game.
903.8.
A player may cast a commander they own from the command zone. A commander cast from the command zone costs an additional {2} for each previous time the player casting it has cast it from the command zone that game.
904.4.
At the start of the game, the archenemy shuffles his or her scheme deck so that the cards are in a random order. The scheme deck is placed face down next to the archenemy’s library. All scheme cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they’re part of a scheme deck and while they’re face up.
904.4.
At the start of the game, the archenemy shuffles their scheme deck so that the cards are in a random order. The scheme deck is placed face down next to the archenemy’s library. All scheme cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they’re part of a scheme deck and while they’re face up.
904.9.
Immediately after the archenemy’s precombat main phase begins during each of his or her turns, that player moves the top card of his or her scheme deck off that scheme deck and turns it face up. This is called “setting that scheme in motion.” (See rule 701.23.) This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. Abilities of that scheme card that trigger “When you set this scheme in motion” trigger.
904.9.
Immediately after the archenemy’s precombat main phase begins during each of their turns, that player moves the top card of their scheme deck off that scheme deck and turns it face up. This is called “setting that scheme in motion.” (See rule 701.24.) This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack. Abilities of that scheme card that trigger “When you set this scheme in motion” trigger.
904.11.
Once an ongoing scheme card is set in motion, it remains face up in the command zone until an ability causes it to be abandoned (see rule 701.24).
904.11.
Once an ongoing scheme card is set in motion, it remains face up in the command zone until an ability causes it to be abandoned (see rule 701.25).
904.12a
As an alternative option, players may play a Free-for-All game in which each player has his or her own scheme deck. The attack multiple players option (see rule 802) is used; no other multiplayer options are used.
904.12a
As an alternative option, players may play a Free-for-All game in which each player has their own scheme deck. The attack multiple players option (see rule 802) is used; no other multiplayer options are used.
905.1a
A draft typically consists of three draft rounds. In each draft round, each player opens a booster pack, drafts one card by placing that card in a face-down pile in front of the player, then passes the remaining cards to the next player. Each player then drafts a card from the booster pack passed to him or her and passes the remaining cards. This procedure continues until all cards in that draft round have been drafted.
905.1a
A draft typically consists of three draft rounds. In each draft round, each player opens a booster pack, drafts one card by placing that card in a face-down pile in front of the player, then passes the remaining cards to the next player. Each player then drafts a card from the booster pack passed to them and passes the remaining cards. This procedure continues until all cards in that draft round have been drafted.
905.1c
During the draft, a player can look only at cards in the booster pack he or she is currently drafting from, cards he or she has already drafted, cards that are currently revealed as described in rule 905.2b, and cards that have been drafted face up as described in rule 905.2c. A player may not reveal drafted cards to other players unless an ability instructs him or her to.
905.1c
During the draft, a player can look only at cards in the booster pack they are currently drafting from, cards they have already drafted, cards that are currently revealed as described in rule 905.2b, and cards that have been drafted face up as described in rule 905.2c. A player may not reveal drafted cards to other players unless an ability instructs them to.
905.1d
After the draft and all actions that may be taken during or after the draft, all the cards a player has drafted become that player’s card pool. The player builds his or her deck from only these cards and any number of basic land cards. See rules 100.2b and 100.4b.
905.1d
After the draft and all actions that may be taken during or after the draft, all the cards a player has drafted become that player’s card pool. The player builds their deck from only these cards and any number of basic land cards. See rules 100.2b and 100.4b.
905.4.
At the start of the game, before decks are shuffled, each player may put any number of conspiracy cards from his or her sideboard into the command zone.
905.4.
At the start of the game, before decks are shuffled, each player may put any number of conspiracy cards from their sideboard into the command zone.
905.4a
Conspiracy cards with hidden agenda are put into the command zone face down. Any time a player has priority, he or she may turn a face-down conspiracy card he or she controls face up. See rule 702.105, “Hidden Agenda.”
905.4a
Conspiracy cards with hidden agenda are put into the command zone face down. Any time a player has priority, they may turn a face-down conspiracy card they control face up. See rule 702.105, “Hidden Agenda.”
905.6.
Once the starting player has been determined, each player sets his or her life total to 20 and draws a hand of seven cards.
905.6.
Once the starting player has been determined, each player sets their life total to 20 and draws a hand of seven cards.